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basskiller's collection of Bodybuilding Peptide Articles

basskiller

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Get Shredded!
I will be posting my collection of different peptide articles that I have come across in the time that I have been researching them. This will be done over time.. so keep checking back.
If you like it, rate the thread!

I thought that maybe some of you could benefit from my finds. That doesn't mean that I agree 100% with all of them. In some, I found parts useful..

I will try my best as always to give credit where credit is due. If you see an article and know the author, Please let me know so I can attach their name.

I lay no claim to any article that isn't mine. I have written a few under different pseudonyms for various reasons. Don't ask, don't tell.

This first post will be reserved for the list linked to each post in the thread . I'm doing it this way so you can see the titles and read what you want. It should make it easier

Peptide Calculator for ease of calculating bodybuilding peptide doses


Bremelanotide (PT-141)
Bremelanotide PT-141 Instruction
Bremelanotide PT-141 Instruction
Melanotan II – PT141

CJC-1295
CJC 1295 with Drug Affinity Complex
CJC -1295 Peptide Profile
CJC-1295 + GHRP-2 reconstitution + dosing schedule
CJC-1295 Peptide Dosage
MEDLINE - CJC-1295 Peptide Studies
Growth Hormone Administration vs. CJC-1295/GHRP-6
CJC-1295 unleashing The Beast by increasing GH 10 times
Growth Hormone Secretagogues (Why cjc+ghrp is effective)
Activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis by CJC-1295
About CJC-1295
Effectiveness of CJC-1295 Peptides

Fragment 176-191
HGH fragment 176-191
Hgh fragment 177-191, Clenbuterol & T3 fat burning synergy
HGH Fragment it’s fat burning properties
bodybuilding fat burning Frag 176-191 peptide

GHRP/GHRH
Ghrp-2
GH-releasing hexapeptide GHRP-6
Growth Hormone Secretagogues (Why cjc+ghrp is effective)
CJC-1295 + GHRP-2 reconstitution + dosing schedule
Growth Hormone Administration vs. CJC-1295/GHRP-6
Basic guide to GHRP/GHRH Peptides
GHRP-2 vs GHRP-6 vs Ipamorelin
GHRH – GHRP – GH a comprehensive dosing protocol
Synergy of GHRH + GHRP

Healing Peptides
Healing Peptides
BPC 157 the healing peptide
TB-500 Healing Peptide
Impact of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on muscle healing

Hexarelin
Hexarelin profile

HGH
HGH + IGF-1 + Insulin - A basic guide

IGF-1
Reconstituting IGF-1 with 1 or 2mls with acetic acid
Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
Bodybuilding IGF-1
HGH + IGF-1 + Insulin - A basic guide
Bodybuilding Peptides Guide
IGF-1 The Bodybuilder’s Dream

Insulin
HGH + IGF-1 + Insulin - A basic guide

Ipamorelin
Ipamorelin Basics
GHRP-2 vs GHRP-6 vs Ipamorelin
Bodybuilders use Ipamorelin Peptide For Building solid Muscle
Ipamorelin

Melanotan)
Melanotan II
Melanotan 2 – An in depth study
Melanotan 2 information
Melanotan II – PT141
Melanotan II and Libido

MK-677
MK-677 Increases Lean Muscle Mass in Elderly

Myostatin Inhibitors
enhancement of muscle mass/strength by myostatin inhibitors


PEG-MGF
PEGylated Mechano Growth Factor (MGF)
PEG-MGF + IGF-I

Peptide Guides
Complete step-by-step guide for peptide beginners
Reconstituting IGF-1 with 1 or 2mls with acetic acid
A Simple Guide to understanding peptide reconstitution
Peptides Explained
The Truth about Bodybuilding Peptides
What are peptides
Peptide Guide Information
What types of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones are there


SARMs
MK-677 for Dieting
MK-677 Restores Muscles, Fountain of Youth
YK11 – Highly Powerful SARM that changes your Genetic Muscle-Building Potential




Others
Estrogen on Cycle: The Good, The Bad, and The Proper Management of Both
Bodybuilding Peptides: How they work and why would an athlete use them
Clenbuterol increases lean muscle mass but not endurance
Anti-aging Growth Hormone Peptide



more to come






.
 
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basskiller

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Complete step-by-step guide for peptide beginners

Complete step-by-step guide for peptide beginners

You are on this site because you have heard of and want to become more familiar with Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide (GHRP) and/or Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH). These 2 materials administered can give you an increased quality of life in ways of anti-aging, muscular hypertrophy, fat loss, injury repair, higher bone density, and better sleep.

GHRP can be used on its own to increase our natural Growth Hormone (GH) pulse release from the Pituitary Gland in the brain. GHRP dosed in conjunction with GHRH will amplify our growth hormone release significantly to gain maximal benefit.






There are various types of GHRH‘s. The only GHRH to consider is tetra-substituted CJC-1295 / CJC-1295(without DAC) / mod-GRF(1-29). They are all the same thing but with a different name. They come in vials ranging in material weights measured in milligrams (mg) consisting of a solid freeze-dried (lyophilized) substance.

There are various types of GHRP‘s. GHRP-6, GHRP-2, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin. The differences between them are potency and side effects. GHRP-6 is very potent and makes you quite hungry. GHRP-2 is potent and can slightly affect your sleep somewhat. Hexarelin is very potent but you can desensitize from higher dosages. Ipamorelin is potent with the minimalist side effects of all 4 GHRP’s.

Peptides are dosed via a regular 1mL needle syringe typical to what a diabetic would use. It is administered Subcutaneously (SubQ) (just under the skin into the fat tissue), most usually around the abdomen region.

The required amount (saturation dose) is 1mcg (microgram) per Kg (Kilogram) of bodyweight. The typical usage and for ease of measuring is 100mcg of mod-GRF(1-29) and/or 100mcg of your choice of GHRP. Lower dosages will simply result in less GH release due to a slightly weaker GH pulse and reduce any side effects you may have. A higher dose will have minimal benefit and is more a waste of money than anything else. But, in saying that, the more frequently dosed in any given day would result in more frequent pulses.

Mixing (reconstitution calculator found here) the lyophilized peptide product in their vials with Bacteriostatic Water (BW) can take some getting used to. The idea is not to add too much dilution. Typical rule of thumb is to add 0.5mL of Bacteriostatic Water to 1mg of Peptide. So a 2mg vial should reconstitute with 1mL Bacteriostatic Water. 5mg with 2.5mL, 10mg with 5mL, etc. Squirt the Bacteriostatic Water along the inside wall of the vial in a smooth controlled manner being cautious not to agitate the mixture too much. It will dissolve itself and become clear. You can roll the vial gently between your fingers or hands but don’t shake it to dissolve. The reconstitute is ok to be drawn once fully dissolved.

On a 1mL needle, there are either 50 tick marks from 0-100, skipping every odd number OR 100 international units (IU). A 100mcg dose is half way between the 2nd and 3rd tick mark, OR 5 IU’s (if you followed the above reconstitution). There are no half tick marks. It is OK to draw mod-GRF and GHRP into the one needle for a single shot. It is NOT OK to mix peptides in the same vial or syringe for storage.

Reconstituted peptides should be stored in the refrigerator to prevent degradation. Left at room temperature, peptide will degrade within days but kept in the fridge will last months. You can pre-load syringes and store in freezer if you want but it is more of a hassle than being worth the effort.

Doses can be taken throughout the day but at no less than 3 hour intervals between doses. 1 dose a day is typical for light injury repair, anti-aging effects, deeper sleep, and better quality of life. The most beneficial would be to dose immediately prior to going to bed for your daily sleep period. Sleep is the time when our pituitary is most active. 2 or 3 doses per day will give the added benefit of lean tissue build, and fat loss, considering your diet consists of good quality foods.

Doses should be taken on empty stomach to benefit the most. This is usually 3 hours or more.

Do not consume food for between 15-30 minutes after your dosage. Best time is around 20-25 minute mark. GH pulses should peak within about 10 minutes after dosage. Fats and Carbohydrates affect the pulse dramatically. Protein has no effect on pulse and you can have a pure protein source in your stomach at anytime if you so choose to.

Dosage timing can be beneficial to your goals. For muscle growth, the 2nd most beneficial time to dose is post workout (PWO). Best time is pre-bed because sleep is when we recover and our cells repair and grow. Within 30 minutes should be fine but sooner the better. Remember to have your meal 20-25 minutes after dose.

For fat loss, your supplemental dose is 1 hour pre-cardio exercise after a long fasting without food. Best time is after waking up and before breakfast. During cardio exercise, maintain a moderate intensity for between 30-60 minutes. 45 minutes is a good session. You do not want to go too hard or too long. A moderate pace will utilize Free Fatty Acids (FFA) at the highest rate for energy. Refrain from eating for approximately 2 hours after your exercise because this is the time the body is still burning fat as fuel. You must eat throughout the day to reduce the chance of muscle catabolism (breakdown).

These Bodybuilding Peptides can be used on a daily basis for the rest of your life without any harm. Enjoy!!!
 
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Reconstituting IGF-1 with 1 or 2mls with acetic acid

1mg is equal to 1000mcgs
1ml is 1 total syringe full of the U100 insulin syringe

this is for 1 vial of 1mg Igf-1

__________________________________________

If you add 1ml of acetic acid to your 1mg vial of IGF-1r3. .

Each hash mark is equal to 20mcgs

so if your doing
20mcgs ed it would be 2iu’s on the slin pin or the first hash mark (as shown on the picture)
40mcgs ed it would be 4iu’s on the slin pin or 2nd hash mark
60mcgs ed it would be 6iu’s on the slin pin 3rd hash mark
80mcgs ed it would be 8iu’s on the slin pin 4th hash mark
100mcgs ed it would be 10iu’s on the slin pin 5th and designated by the number 10 (first actual number that is printed on your insulin syringe)

Reconstituting IGF-1 with 1 of acetic acid

1ml-igf-1-worldclassbodybuilding.jpg


__________________________________________________

If you add 2mls of acetic acid to your 1mg vial of IGF-1r3. .

Each hash mark in this case is equal to 10mcgs

so if your doing
10mcgs ed it would be 2iu’s on the slin pin or the first hash mark (as shown on the picture)
20mcgs ed it would be 4iu’s on the slin pin or 2nd hash mark
30mcgs ed it would be 6iu’s on the slin pin 3rd hash mark
40mcgs ed it would be 8iu’s on the slin pin 4th hash mark
50mcgs ed it would be 10iu’s on the slin pin 5th and designated by the number 10 (first actual number that is printed on your insulin syringe)

After you draw in your amount desired of reconstituted IGF-1, Take your bacteriostatic water and draw a bit of it into your syringe that contains the IGF.. It doesn’t take much and the amount is arbitrary as it will not change or effect the dose that is already in the syringe.
shake the syringe slightly as to mix everything together and inject

Note: using the 1ml AA method ………………………………………………………….. Note: using the 2ml AA method
each hash mark is equal to 20mcgs…………………………………………………….. each hash mark is equal to 10mcgs


Reconstituting IGF-1 with 2mls of acetic acid

2ml-igf-1-worldclassbodybuilding.jpg

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basskiller

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A Simple Guide to understanding peptide reconstitution

It seems to be increasingly common that users are introducing themselves to the idea of pinning through the use of peptides (although, arguably, hcg usage is also increasing in usage for those running non-injectable cycles). While I personally find these to be a great way to get yourself comfortable with the idea of injecting, it seems many become confused nearly immediately with how to at the first step, reconstitution. So I decided to just create a quick reference for those of you out there, and show you how the simple math required is not intimidating in the least. This guide will be a bit long, as I am hoping to avoid the common questions, but I think it will be a very good guide for some, and maybe too “simple” for others.

A short disclaimer:
This guide is purely hypothetical, and I do not encourage the use of any PED without the close guidance of a physician. This guide takes no consideration to the laws of your country. I do not condone any illegal activity. It is merely designed to be an educational resource. This guide also does not condone the usage of Research Chemical company’s products. These products are strictly for research use only, and human usage is in violation of their terms of service.

Alright, so this guide will follow under the assumption that you have aquired your peptide of choice (or hCG), and are ready to reconstitute it.

You will need the following items:
•Your Peptide Vial
•Bacteriostatic Water
•Alcohol Wipes (available at your local pharmacy, usually near diabetic supplies)
•Insulin Syringe (more on this in a moment)

A quick discussion on syringes:
Syringe availability will vary largely depending on the laws of your state/country. In many states, such as mine, low quantity purchases of insulin syringes are available at the pharmacy without the need for a prescription. Laws such as these are in place as a counter measure to help avoid the increase of HIV transmission through unsafe needle usage, by allowing addicts to purchase clean syringes.

Size will depend on your source. An insulin syringe will typically range from 29g to 31g. For those unaware, the smaller the gauge (the “g”), the larger the number. So a 31g will be smaller needle width than a 29g. Generally, smaller gauge needles can provide less soreness through injection, but they are also much more fragile. Having used a 31g, I do prefer them for the ease of injection (minimal “pinch” feel), but they do become increasingly fragile, so proper care is required.

Now that you have your supplies gathered, it is time to reconstitute your peptides. Please make sure that you do this in a clean environment to reduce the risk of contamination.

For this example, I will be using a typical 5mg product, as is typical of the GHRPs provided by many companies. Although your particular product may not contain 5mg, the same idea will hold through to other products, just with a different amount of actives. I will also be under the assumption that you will want 100mcg doses (although again, this will vary by product/your required dosing).

Before you begin, you must do the math to understand how much bacteriostatic water you will need for your reconstitution.

If you are looking for the said 100mcg doses, from a 5mg vial, then you will have 50 doses from this vial. 100mcg x 50 = 5,000mcg, or 5mg. You can apply this to any amount of product. For example, Ipamorelin is usually available in 2mg vials. In that case, you would have 2,000mcg of Ipamorelin, which divided by 100mcg would give you 20 doses. The amount of dosages is important here, as it will dictate how to utilize your reconstituted product.

So back to the original 5mg product, we know we are going to have 50 doses. The idea here then, is to add enough bac water to the peptide in order to allow you to dose those individual dosage. Personally, I like to use as little Bac water as needed, but also attempt to keep it easy enough to dose. The key point here is to know that no matter how much bac water you add to your vial, 1/50 of that will always be 100mcg.

With that said, if you add 1ml of bac water to the vial, your 100mcg dosage will be 2iu on the syringe.
(1ml = 1cc on your syringe = 100iu, so 100iu/50 doses = 2iu).

If you add 2ml of bac water to the vial, your 100mcg dosage will be 4iu (200iu/50 doses = 4iu).

If you add 3ml of bac water to the vial, your 100mcg dosage will be 6iu (300iu/50 doses =6iu).

It is up to you how much bac water you will like to use, and utilizing the option of keeping this guide non-opinionated, I won’t give a recommendation on this, however, it will be dictated by how large your vial is and how accurate your pins are (a 50iu *sold as 1/2 cc* syring will make it easier to measure smaller amounts, where a 1cc *100iu* syringe will make it more difficult to measure smaller amounts).

Once you have an amount chosen, we can move on the the actual reconstitution. In this example, I will reconstitute with 2ml of bac water.

1. Snap of off the plastic cover of your peptide vial and your bac water.

2. Take an alcohol wipe, and wipe down the rubber top of both the peptide vial and your bac water, and then discard the wipe and allow vials to dry for a second or two.

3. Take a syringe and remove the safety cap (most will have one cap over the needle, and one over the plunger). Set these caps aside, while taking precaution not to expose your needle to any other object (it is sterile!). Pull the plunger on your syringe to the maximum reading (will usually be either 1/2cc or 1cc) to allow the syringe to fill with air. (It is also common practice to draw this air from the peptide vial. You can do this by inserting the needle into the peptide vial, keeping it right side up, and drawing the air that way. Then pull the syringe from the bottle, and on to step 4).

4. Insert the needle into the rubber portion of your bacteriostatic water. With the syringe inserted, turn the vial of bacteriostatic water upside down, and push the plunger into the syringe (this will cause the air to enter the vial). Then, slowly, draw back on the syringe back to that maximum reading, as it will allow the syringe to fill with bac water.

Quick Note: The reason you fill your syringe with air, and then insert the air into the vial, is to keep the pressure within the vial, which will allow you to draw with much greater ease.

5. You may now turn the vial of back water back to right side up, and remove your syringe, again taking caution to avoid the needle from coming into contact with anything else.

6. We are now ready to insert the bac water into the peptide vial. I recommend reconstituting slowly, and avoiding adding the bac water directly onto the peptide, and rather down the sides of the vial. Take your peptide vial, and insert the syringe through the rubber stopper on an angle, enough so that once the needle penetrates the rubber, it is angled towards the side of the vial.

7. Slowly push down on the plunger allowing the bac water to enter down the sides of the vial. Take your time doing this, as there is no rush.

8. Once all of the bac water is into the vial, remove the syringe and gently (GENTLY!) swirl the vial allowing the peptide to dissolve into the bac water.

9. Depending on the target amount of bac water to be added, and the size of your pin, you must now repeat steps 3-8 until you have added the correct amount of bacteriostatic water. If you are aiming for 2ml of bacteriostatic water, and are using a 1/2cc syringe, this process must be done a total of 4 times, and if using a 1cc syringe, this process must be done a total of twice.

10. Once the proper amount is added, place the caps back on both ends of your syringe and properly discard of it. Do not reuse this syringe for injection.

Depending on your product, refridgeration might be necessary. If so, store reconstituted product in fridge.

That should be it. Happy research. If you have any questions, feel free to ask, but only do so after having completely read through this guide.

If you guys like this guide, I might do some later on some common peptides, when I can get to it.

written by h2s (Super Moderator at Swolesource)
 

basskiller

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Ipamorelin Basics

Ipamorelin or NNC 26-0161, a polypeptide hormone, is a growth hormone secretagogue and ghrelin mimetic and analog developed by Novo Nordisk[3]. Ipamorelin belongs to the most recent generation of GHRPs from the mid 1990s and causes significant release of growth hormone by itself, due both to its suppression of somatostatin (an antagonist to GHRH) and stimulation of release of GH from the anterior pituitary, similar to GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 which are compounds from the same class (growth hormone releasing peptides).[1]
The cells that produce and release GH are known as somatotropes.[2] Like GHRP-2, ipamorelin does not have ghrelin’s lipogenic properties. Like GHRP-2 and unlike GHRP-6 ipamorelin never induces hunger in mammals. Ipamorelin acts synergistically when applied during a native GHRH (growth-hormone releasing hormone) pulse or when coadministered with GHRH or a GHRH analog such as Sermorelin or GRF 1-29 (growth releasing factor, aminos 1-29).[1]
The synergy comes both due to the suppression of somatostatin and the fact that ipamorelin increases GH release per-somatotrope, while GHRH increases the number of somatotropes releasing GH.[1,2] There is also a secondary effect of neuronal excitation in the hypothalamus caused by ipamorelin, which lasts for approximately 3 hours after application, similar to GHRP-2 and GHRP-6.



Ipamorelin has a unique property among the GHRP class of peptides. That property is known as selectiveness. Raun et al demonstrated the selectiveness of ipamorelin for GH release only in a study: The development and pharmacology of a new potent growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, ipamorelin, is described.
Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide (Aib-His-D-2-Nal-D-Phe-Lys-NH2), which displays high GH releasing potency and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. As an outcome of a major chemistry programme, ipamorelin was identified within a series of compounds lacking the central dipeptide Ala-Trp of growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-1. In vitro, ipamorelin released GH from primary rat pituitary cells with a potency and efficacy similar to GHRP-6 (ECs) = 1.3+/-0.4nmol/l and Emax = 85+/-5% vs 2.2+/-0.3nmol/l and 100%).

A pharmacological profiling using GHRP and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists clearly demonstrated that ipamorelin, like GHRP-6, stimulates GH release via a GHRP-like receptor. In pentobarbital anaesthetised rats, ipamorelin released GH with a potency and efficacy comparable to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 80+/-42nmol/kg and Emax = 1545+/-250ng GH/ml vs 115+/-36nmol/kg and 1167+/-120ng GH/ml).
In conscious swine, ipamorelin released GH with an ED50 = 2.3+/-0.03 nmol/kg and an Emax = 65+/-0.2 ng GH/ml plasma. Again, this was very similar to GHRP-6 (ED50 = 3.9+/-1.4 nmol/kg and Emax = 74+/-7ng GH/ml plasma). GHRP-2 displayed higher potency but lower efficacy (ED50 = 0.6 nmol/kg and Emax = 56+/-6 ng GH/ml plasma). The specificity for GH release was studied in swine.

None of the GH secretagogues tested affected FSH, LH, PRL or TSH plasma levels. Administration of both GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 resulted in increased plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol. Very surprisingly, ipamorelin did not release ACTH or cortisol in levels significantly different from those observed following GHRH stimulation. This lack of effect on ACTH and cortisol plasma levels was evident even at doses more than 200-fold higher than the ED50 for GH release. In conclusion, ipamorelin is the first GHRP-receptor agonist with a selectivity for GH release similar to that displayed by GHRH. The specificity of ipamorelin makes this compound a very interesting candidate for future clinical development.[3]

Whereas GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 cause a release and increase in cortisol and prolactin levels, ipamorelin only selectively releases GH at any dose. Further, a mega-dose of ipamorelin results in a concomitant mega-release of GH (up to the entire amount present in the pituitary), whereas GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 have limits of approximately 1mcg/kg in humans for their maximal GH release.[4,5]

Cititations:
[1] Bowers CY, Momany F, Reynolds GA. In vitro and in vivo activity of a small synthetic peptide with potent GH releasing activity. 64th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, San Francisco, 1982, p. 205.
[2]Bowers CY, Momany F, Reynolds GA, Sartor O. Multiple receptors mediate GH release. 7th International Congress of Endocrinology, Quebec, Canada, 1984, p. 464.
[3] Raun K, Hansen BS, Johansen NL, Thøgersen H, Madsen K, Ankersen M, Andersen PH. Ipamorelin, the first selective growth hormone secretagogue. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):552-61.
[4] Brosnan-Cook, M. et al. (1998) Iontophoretic delivery of ipamorelin, a growth hormone secretagogue. Proceedings of 80th Annual Meeting Endocrine Society, New Orleans, USA. Abstract Pp1-186.
[5] Jogarao V S Gobburu; Henrik Agerso; William J Jusko . Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Ipamorelin, a Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide in Human Volunteers. Lars Ynddal Pharmaceutical Research: Sep 1999; 16, 9; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source p. 1412.
 

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Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

Pharmaceutical Name: Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1
Drug Classification: Polypeptide Hormone
Active Life: huIGF-1: approximately 10 minutes, Long R3 IGF-1: 2-5 hours






Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone that is one of the primary substances that is responsible for tissue growth in humans, including muscle growth (1). IGF-1 is primarily secreted by the liver, with a small minority of the circulating amount of the hormone being produced and delivered by other tissues. The basic function of the hormone is to induce cellular activities. For bodybuilders and strength athletes this compound could produce good results when used due to the ability of the compound to potentially enhance muscle hyperplasia, the actual increase in number of muscle cells in the body or particular muscle.

This effect of muscle hyperplasia that IGF-1 can help promote is the primary reason why it has become so popular among bodybuilders. It is believed that IGF-1 may be able to produce localized growth in the muscles that the IGF1 is administered into post-workout. However this effect of the hormone remains more theoretical in nature because of the lack of research available on the subject using human subjects. Despite this many users still claim that they have seen results from IGF1 when using it for this explicit purpose and it remains within the realm of possibilities. However simply because science can not discount the result as implausible does not mean that it is a given either.




Among the other anabolic effects that IGF-1 can produce in the body are things such as increasing protein synthesis, increasing nitrogen retention, as well as inducing the growth of more muscle fibers. When an appropriate amount of amino acids (protein) is available, all of these actions within the body are able to be completed. It has been demonstrated that IGF1 can help to improve collagen production as well as the reproduction of cartilage in joints (2). The hormone has also been shown to exhibit the ability to act as a neuro-protector and promoter (3) mainly because IGF1 receptors are located in the tissue of the brain (4). It has been demonstrated that there is a potential for when supplemented with IGF1 a decrease in the progress of some brain diseases can be brought about as well as slowing the deterioration of brain function in some elderly subjects. However similar findings or any evidence of improved brain function or capacity has not been demonstrated in young, healthy individuals.

Obviously by helping to promote these anabolic mechanisms for growth IGF-1 also acts as an anti-catabolic. This would be beneficial to those users in a calorie deficit or in other circumstances that place them at risk of losing muscle mass. IGF1 also has the ability to positively affect lipolysis in users if other necessary conditions are met, namely proper diet and training protocols. When combined with the ability to preserve muscle mass, IGF1 appears to be an attractive choice for those that are attempting to decrease their body fat while maintaining as much of their muscle mass as possible.

IGF1 is composed of seventy amino acids, the same number as insulin. As stated earlier, it is primarily secreted by the liver. The stimulus that is responsible for this secretion is the presence of growth hormone. In fact IGF1 is primarily the causal connection between growth hormone and its anabolic and anti-catabolic capabilities. This is not to say that effects caused by growth hormone could be produced with only IGF1, but rather that the two compounds are very much related to one another and both are needed for optimal tissue growth.

In some animal studies there have been significant findings that support the idea that IGF1 administration can help to induce large increases in both strength and muscle size. While these results have not been reproduced in humans they do suggest that the gains experienced by users are connected to the administration of IGF1 and related to the anabolic mechanisms that are caused by the hormone. However to say that the findings of some of these studies could be replicated in humans would be incorrect. For example, a twenty-seven percent increase in muscle strength was produced in mice advanced in age when administered moderate dosages of IGF1 (5). Of course it would be dubious to claim that similar gains could be made by a trained athlete that chose to use IGF1 but it does suggest that the hormone will promote at least some of the mechanisms responsible for muscle growth.

As stated, the IGF-1 produced by the human body is seventy amino acids in length. However a different IGF1 composition is available. Called Long R3 Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (LR3 IGF1), it has the original seventy amino acids of regular IGF1 with a substitution of Arginine in place of Glutamic Acid at position three in the sequence. Additionally thirteen more amino acids have been added to the sequence. This extension peptide is located at the N-terminus in the sequence. These alterations were made so that the hormone would be more likely to remain active and potent when it encounters Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 binding proteins in the body (6). All of this adds up to LR3 IGF1 being potentially three times as potent as the regular version of IGF1, or human IGF1 (huIGF1). Obviously this makes LR3 IGF1 more attractive for strength athletes and bodybuilders. For this reason it is now the most widely available version for purchase due to the compound having all of the benefits of regular IGF1, and being potentially three times as potent, while having no additional risks or side effects to that of regular IGF1.

Use/Dosing

Depending upon which form of IGF1 which a person is administering, the dosing will differ slightly. For huIGF1 dosing users will want to inject the drug post-workout, most likely in the muscle(s) that was worked out to help produce any potential local site growth if any is indeed possible. Due to the extremely short active life of the drug users will likely want to inject the drug several times to help and prolong the effects of the drug. Splitting the dose into two to four injections should be sufficient. When administering the compound on days where the user does not work out a similar dosing protocol could be used in any of the muscles that the user desires.

For LR3 IGF1, because of the longer active life of the drug in comparison to huIGF1, users will not have to administer the drug as frequently. Twice daily injections should be sufficient, although a single injection daily should also be able to produce significant results for the majority of users. Again, users will want to inject the drug post-workout in the muscle(s) that were worked. However, a second injection should be done elsewhere in the day. If not, a single injection time post-workout should be used. On off days from the gym, as with huIGF1, an injection can be made and may best be administered in the morning as to best fight off muscle catabolism. Barring this, any convenient time in the day can be used. However there are those users who simply opt not to administer any IGF1 on non-training days. It is at the discretion of the user.

Due to the possible local site growth that IGF1 may induce in users, many will split their doses and inject bilaterally. That is to say inject half of the dose into the muscle on the left side of their body and the other half of the dose in the right side of their body. Alternatively the user can simply inject the entire dose of IGF1 in one muscle on one day while making sure to inject the other muscle with the entire dose the next time that that muscle group falls in the injection rotation of the user.

The duration that a user will want to run IGF1 for is determined by the fact that IGF1 receptors in the body become saturated as large amounts of the hormone are introduced into the body. As the use of IGF1 continues, these receptors will begin to downgrade and the effects of the hormone will begin to lessen. For this reason consistent breaks from use of IGF1 need to be taken by users. Anecdotally the majority of users report seeing their gains from IGF1 begin to diminish after using the drug for about four to six weeks. This would seemingly indicate that receptor downgrade would be happening around this mark. However there is little to no information regarding IGF1 receptor downgrade and exactly how long it takes to occur and how long it takes for these receptors to recover. We are left to decipher these personal experiences with the drug and extrapolate the most efficient way to use it. As stated, it seems that cycles of about four to six weeks are ideal for many users although longer cycles are certainly possible. When coming off of the compound an equal amount of time spent off of it as was spent using it seems to allow for the IGF1 receptors to “upgrade” and once again be able to produce the results the user experienced initially. However despite these assumptions there are countless theories and protocols that users may administer IGF1 with and if they find it beneficial then there is no reason not to use these alternative protocols. There is simply not enough research to make definitive statements about how best or how long to run this drug.

In terms of dosing for huIGF1, users have reported seen good results when administering dosing ranging from 100 to 160 mcg per day. This total dose would be split into several injections, most of which would likely be administered post-workout. For LR3 IGF1, the generally excepted or reported range for dosing is seemingly between 40 to 120 mcg per day. Again however due to the lack of research concerning IGF1 and its use in athletes these dosages are composed of through the collection of anecdotal evidence from users and not scientific research.

Risks/Side Effects

Beyond the natural downgrading of the IGF1 receptors when using exogenous IGF1, there are appears to be little in the way of significant risks to the health of the user associated with its use. Caution has to be used when saying this however again due to the lack of empirical research conducted using this drug on human subjects.

One major risk that could potentially become problematic for some users is the ability of IGF1 to promote or enhance the growth of pre-existing tumors and cancers (1). Similarly to growth hormone, IGF1 can
accelerate the growth of tumors which is not to be unexpected due to the very nature of IGF1 as a growth factor within the body and the effect it has on cells. For this reason it is advisable that prior to undertaking use of IGF1 a user gets medically cleared by a doctor and ensures that no tumors or other diseases that could be exasperated by use of the drug are present.

A far less potentially severe side effect of IGF1 use is the suppression of the endogenous human growth hormone production in users. Endogenous IGF1 creates a negative feedback loop for growth hormone in humans. Exogenous IGF1 will have the same effect and therefore will likely cause growth hormone production to be temporarily suppressed in users. This is another reason why users will want to cycle their use of IGF1 and not attempt to stay on the drug for extended periods of time. By limiting the use of IGF1 to only a few weeks, this should ensure the general health of the user as well as the mechanism responsible for the production of both IGF1 as well as human growth hormone.

While not being significant, IGF1 also has the ability to lower blood glucose levels. For the most part the compound will not lower the blood glucose in users to dangerous levels unless a pre-existing condition is evident. However this lowering of blood glucose will often cause the user to feel lethargic. This sometimes lasts the duration of use of the drug but should subside once the administration of the compound ceases.

A trait that again is shared with human growth hormone is the fact that use of IGF1 sometimes results in users having aches and pains form most notably in their wrists, fingers and hands. This is a common side effect but if it becomes unbearable a lowering of the dosage should reduce the severity of the symptoms. They will cease once administration of the drug is discontinued.

In addition, while it is possible that IGF1 could cause abnormal organ growth and/or acromegaly it would simply take overly large doses used for long durations of time for this to occur in users. With normal use of the drug these side effects should not be a concern for the vast majority of users however.

References

1. Smith GD, Gunnell D, Holly J. Cancer and insulin-like growth factor-I. A potential mechanism linking the environment with cancer risk. BMJ. 2000 Oct 7;321(7265):847-8.

2. Sienkiewicz P, Palka M, Palka J. Oxidative stress induces IGF-I receptor signaling disturbances in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. A possible mechanism for collagen biosynthesis inhibition. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2004;9(4A):643-50.

3. Mendez P, Azcoitia I, Garcia-Segura LM. Interdependence of oestrogen and insulin-like growth factor-I in the brain: potential for analysing neuroprotective mechanisms. J Endocrinol. 2005 Apr;185(1):11-7.

4. Creyghton WM, van Dam PS, Koppeschaar HP. The role of the somatotropic system in cognition and other cerebral functions. Semin Vasc Med. 2004 May;4(2):167-72.

5. Barton-Davis ER, Shoturma DI, Musaro A, Rosenthal N, Sweeney HL. Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 22;95(26):15603-7.

6. Walton PE, Dunshea FR, Ballard FJ. In vivo actions of IGF analogues with poor affinities for IGFBPs: metabolic and growth effects in pigs of different ages and GH responsiveness. Prog Growth Factor Res. 1995;6(2-4):385-95.
 

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Peptides Explained

A peptide is an amino chain responsible for signalling different responses in the body. These amino chains already exist in the body and that is the good thing about peptides. There are different classes of peptides according to the number sequence that I will have explained in the below article. Certain sequences are considered a PROTEIN such as HGH (Human Growth Hormone) that is 191aa.
Insulin is actually an amino sequence considered a PROTEIN as well. Below is a statement from Wikipedia for reference. Notice below mentions a “Peptide Fragment”. This can be exampled to the product “HGH frag” that is the isolated amino chain “176-191″ that is the chain responsible for the diuretic effects of Human Growth Hormone (HGH).

Peptides (from the Greek πεπτός, “digested” from πέσσειν “to digest”) are short polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same peptide bonds as those in proteins, but are commonly shorter in length. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond. There can also be tripeptides, tetrapeptides, pentapeptides, etc. Peptides have an amino end and a carboxyl end, unless they are cyclic peptides.

A polypeptide is a single linear chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. Protein molecules consist of one or more polypeptides put together typically in a biologically functional way and sometimes have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors.

Peptide Definitions
One definition is that those chains that are short enough to be made synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. However, with the advent of better synthetic techniques, peptides as long as hundreds of amino acids can be made, including full proteins like ubiquitin. Native chemical ligation has given access to even longer proteins, so this convention seems to be outdated.
Another definition places an informal dividing line at approximately 50 amino acids in length (some people claim shorter lengths). This definition is somewhat arbitrary. Long peptides, such as the amyloid beta peptide linked to Alzheimer’s disease, can be considered proteins; and small proteins, such as insulin, can be considered peptides.

Peptide classes
Here are the major classes of peptides, according to how they are produced:

Milk peptides
Milk peptides are formed from milk proteins by enzymatic breakdown by digestive enzymes or by the proteinases formed by lactobacilli during the fermentation of milk. Several milk peptides have been shown to have antihypertensive effects in animal and in clinical studies (see also Lactotripeptides).

Ribosomal peptides
Ribosomal peptides are synthesized by translation of mRNA. They are often subjected to proteolysis to generate the mature form. These function, typically in higher organisms, as hormones and signaling molecules. Some organisms produce peptides as antibiotics, such as microcins. Since they are translated, the amino acid residues involved are restricted to those utilized by the ribosome. However, these peptides frequently have posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, hydroxylation, sulfonation, palmitylation, glycosylation and disulfide formation. In general, they are linear, although lariat structures have been observed. More exotic manipulations do occur, such as racemization of L-amino acids to D-amino acids in platypus venom.

Nonribosomal peptides
These peptides are assembled by enzymes that are specific to each peptide, rather than by the ribosome. The most common non-ribosomal peptide is glutathione, which is a component of the antioxidant defenses of most aerobic organisms. Other nonribosomal peptides are most common in unicellular organisms, plants, and fungi and are synthesized by modular enzyme complexes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases.[5] These complexes are often laid out in a similar fashion, and they can contain many different modules to perform a diverse set of chemical manipulations on the developing product.[6] These peptides are often cyclic and can have highly-complex cyclic structures, although linear nonribosomal peptides are also common. Since the system is closely related to the machinery for building fatty acids and polyketides, hybrid compounds are often found. The presence of oxazoles or thiazoles often indicates that the compound was synthesized in this fashion.

Peptones
Peptones are derived from animal milk or meat digested by proteolytic digestion. In addition to containing small peptides, the resulting spray-dried material includes fats, metals, salts, vitamins and many other biological compounds. Peptone is used in nutrient media for growing bacteria and fungi.

Peptide fragments
Peptide fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein. Often these are the products of enzymatic degradation performed in the laboratory on a controlled sample, but can also be forensic or paleontological samples that have been degraded by natural effects

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CJC-1295 Peptide Dosage

The information below relates to using GHRH Peptides (CJC-1295 DAC and Modified GRF 1-29) as standalone products.

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (GHRH):
include Modified GRF 1-29(Cjc1295) and CJC-1295 DAC, are peptides which stimulate the pituitary gland
to release stores of the body’s natural Growth Hormone (GH).

Recommended Dosages
The second most potent fat loss peptide is CJC-1295 DAC since it causes the overall GH level to rise in the body. The most potent being



Modified GRF 1-29 Dose per injection: 100mcg Injections per vial: 20 x 100mcg dosages Amount to Inject: If you have used 1ml of water for mixing then a 100mcg dosage = 0.05ml (or 5 units on Insulin Syringe). If you have used 2ml of water for mixing then 100mcg = 0.10ml (or 10 units) and if you have used 3ml of water for mixing, then 100mcg = 0.15ml (or 15 units).

CJC-1295 DAC Dose per injection: 2mg Injections per vial: 1 x 2mg dosages Amount to Inject: If you have used 0.5ml of water for mixing then a 2mg dosage = 0.50ml (or 50 units on Insulin Syringe). If you have used 1ml of water then a 2mg dosage = 1ml (or 100 units).

Injection Frequency

Modified GRF 1-29 100mcg injected 1-3 times per day, preferably together with a GHRP Peptide at 100-200mcg.

CJC-1295 DAC 2mg injected once per week (due to its long half-life)

Diet Restrictions

Modified GRF 1-29 Pre-injection: The purpose of injection Modified GRF 1-29 is to have it trigger a release of GH in the body. Since fat and insulin (released after eating carbohydrates) both diminish the release of GH you should refrain from consuming any high fat or high carbohydrate meals or beverages for at least 2 hours before your injection (assuming you are injecting Modified GRF 1-29 on its own). An example of this would be eating dinner at 8pm then waiting until at least 10pm to do your injection. If you are however combining it with a GHRP peptide, studies in animals have indicated that when these peptides were taken together just 1 hour after eating their ability to release GH wasn’t diminished. Therefore if your schedule is not so flexible in regard to meal timings, you may wish to combine Modified GRF 1-29 with a GHRP peptide.

Post-injection: 30 minutes post-injection is usually when GHRH stimulation of GH release is complete, meaning it’s safe to consume food/beverages after this time without worrying that they will cause your injection to be less effective. Consuming a high protein/carbohydrate meal at this time will create an insulin spike and therefore assist with the anabolic (muscle building) effects of GH. Those looking to burn fat should wait as long as possible before eating and when you do, only eat high protein, low fat and low carbohydrate meals to allow GH’s fat burning effects to last as long as possible.

CJC-1295 DAC

Due to its long half-life no dietary restrictions are required for CJC-1295 DAC to exhibit its long-term benefits on your body’s basal GH level, however, observing the same instructions as above for Modified GRF 1-29 will ensure you also take advantage of the short-term GH pulse created after a CJC-1295 DAC injection.

Recommended Diet Cutting: High Protein with moderate fat and low carbohydrates since insulin (primarily realized in response to carbohydrates being consumed) will stop GH’s fat burning effects while it’s present.

Bulking: High Protein, high carbohydrates, and low fat. While insulin stops GH’s fat loss properties, it is required for GH to be anabolic (muscle building), so you should always aim to spike your insulin 30 minutes post injection. (All info gathered via internet )

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GH-releasing hexapeptide GHRP-6

GH-releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) is a secratogue that stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) by acting at both hypothalamic and pituitary sites which has been clinically documented in a wide variety of species in vivo and in vitro. GHRP-6 duplicates the way the growth hormone works in the body. In studies it not only has shown to enhance growth hormone levels, but also increased the pulsatile secretory bursts of GH. Another remarkable trait of GHRP-6 is its increase in normal pulsatile physiological secretion by its hypothalamic action. Initial studies with GHRP-6 suggested that this compound acted primarily on the pituitary gland and was absolutely specific for GH release. More recent studies have qualified both of these assumptions. This peptide has been clinically verified to increase GH levels, increase appetite, raise IGF-1 levels, help sleep cycles and more.

The GHRP-6 is enclosed in an antivirus capsule, which essentially the outer capsule of a virus that contains no actual viral DNA or RNA so it is completely safe. The Antivirus used has been engineered to contain special peptides on it that actually act like an adhesive glue to certain cells in your mouth.
These peptides are very important because by adhering to the mucosal cells in your mouth they ensure that the antivirus can inject the GHRP-6 into your cells. The antivirus signals the lipid membrane to open protein channels that actually take the peptide into the cell. Once in the cells the mucosal adhesion peptides are broken off from the peptide we added whether it be IGF, GHRP-6 or whatever. The peptide is now free to be release through the lymphatic system in its biological active form.
This means it is carried throughout the blood stream directly from the cells in your mouth. So there is no sudden spike of GHRP-6 your own cells actually regulate its release. It never reaches any digestive enzymes or acids beyond that of the mucus in your moth which is actually at about the same pH used to store GHRP-6 in acetic acid, so claiming that it’s broken down here is ridiculous.
The transport of the peptide to the lymphatic system is what results in a slower more controlled release of the peptide over time. A recent study has verified that a 24 hr constant iv infusion of GHRP-6 neurophysiologically (via the central nervous system) activated the GH-IGF-1 axis by activating GH secretory burst mass and amplitude by 7 -to 10-fold and increasing the basal (nonpulsitile) GH secretion by 4.5 fold.

For example, significant increases in plasma IGF-1 concentrations were noted after 7 days of GHRP-6 infusion and have even been reported after 7 days of intranasal administration in children and in adults after 7 to 14 days of intranasal hexarelin administration. It is also of interest that long-term administration of hexarelin has been shown to significantly increase circulating GH concentrations as well. The potential clinical utility of these GH secratogues is due to the consistent clinical verification of these findings in individuals of many ages.

Users often administer this product by placing it in a syring and squirting it into the cheeks on the side of the mouth. Users are urged not to do anything to induce excess saliva secretion because this will diminish the absorption rate of the drug by causing a larger portion of it to be flushed down the throat and dissolved by the stomach. Users are instructed not to take this product with food, because this will also greatly hinder the amount of the drug that is actually absorbed by the body. It is also important to note that users shouldn’t brush their teeth or do any kind of mouthwash 30 minutes before or after administration. The basic idea is to keep the mouth as undisturbed and as dry as possible while the hormone has time to seep into the pours on the inner lining of the mouth so that it can be properly absorbed.

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The Truth about Bodybuilding Peptides

The Truth about Bodybuilding Peptides and what you can expect

For all the people out there that looking for instant gratification, these may not be your supplement of choice. But for the guys that are willing to go and bust our butts in the gym day in and day out and we don’t need to see an inch added our arms this week to come back and do it again next week because we know that if you keep coming back that’s where the true rewards begin.

Don’t be fooled by other companies advertising steroid like effects from peptides like MGF or IGF or any type of GH. It’s a false claim made to make sales. And its place/people like this that are ruining the peptide business. People don’t see anything close to the results they got from their last cycle of AAS and immediately think they got screwed or scammed or that peptides are junk and a waste of money. This is the fault of the seller for not informing the client.

When you do a cycle of AAS, what’s next?? PCT of course. All AAS users have the same fears at the end of each cycle. They don’t want to lose their hard earned gains. The gains that came so fast and so easy, but can be lost in the blink of an eye without proper PCT. And even with good PCT it’s still hard to keep everything. Then there is the other evil. ESTROGEN!!! You are popping anti-e’s and AI’s and progestin blockers that cost you a ton extra because you don’t want those bitch tits or that bloat, or the sudden fat gain. AAS = great gains, followed by anxiety. Now I’m not going to knock AAS they are a cornerstone. They give undeniable results. But at the cost of side effects, and PCT anxiety and cost. So they aren’t perfect. You spend your off time trying to maintain, let alone trying to make gains….

Now let’s look at what happens during a cycle of peptides. Taken right with good diet and exercise just like you would for an AAS, but maybe not quite as many calories as some do on heavy cycles, you will see some small gains, some leaning out, but no where near the 20lbs of beef you put on last test/tren cycle. You might be lucky with 5lbs over the course of 6-8 weeks. But here is where it gets good. All those gains, there yours, not going anywhere, not going to suddenly start to subside, they aren’t going to result in some post cycle bloat, bitch tit formation, or fat gain. In fact your metabolism will be slightly higher from the gains. Anxiety free… no wait!!! It’s better than anxiety free; you should be just as stoked now as when you started the cycle. Because after you do a cycle of peptides like IGF or MGF especially. The gains are going to come better after the cycle then they did before. Unlike AAS where you try to gain and then maintain.

You see steroids make the adult muscle cells (myotubules) bigger, but the bigger these cells get as we all know the harder and harder it is to make them even bigger. These myotubules are limited in size by the amount of nuclei they contain. The closer they get to being maxed the harder for them to grow and when they are maxed well that’s about it…. gains will be few and far between. Myotubules don’t divide like other cells so you pretty much have as many as you’re going to have for the most part. Hyperplasia does occur but it is a very rare process. This is where some people refer to the genetics. Because your genetics determines largely your # of myotubules you have, and the hormones that regulate them.

This is where peptides make their mark. Growth factors in short lead to an increase in the potential of the myotubules to grow because they can influence the stem cell pools of the muscle which are their for growth and repair, to fuse with the adult myotubules and increase the # of nuclei. This means they can grow more again, and grow easier. Individual mechanisms for each peptide may very, but this is the overall effect they are all going for. So after taking some peptides you will experience better gains than before, with relatively non existent side effects, no PTC, no anxiety. These are supplements with an investment in mind, a future goal beyond the current cycle, and realistic view that real gains don’t have to come in 6-12 week segments but can come all year round.

When you add all that up, the cost of peptides is not as far overhead as you might think. Especially when great companies provide them affordably. And they do try, I have first hand experience with some of the technology they are using, and they aren’t getting gold teeth over at the warehouse off you guys. It cost a lot of money to bring this caliber of products to the market. Peptides are complicated structures, not simple molecules like AAS. But if you in this business for the long hall, peptides have extremely good benefits to offer
 
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Bodybuilding IGF-1

Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a substance which in manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. IGF-1 is the primary mediator of the growth promoting effects of human growth hormone. As such, the substance also can stimulate the growth of bone, muscle, and internal organs. Its effects on skeletal muscle are also highly hyperplasic, meaning it causes an increase in cell number. Unlike human growth hormone, however, this substance has very strong insulin like effects. It can support growth by increasing the uptake of amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids, but lowers blood sugar levels so efficiently that it can induce severe hypoglycemia if to high of a dose is taken. The increased uptake of fatty acids may also mean that the drug can increase the amount of body fat that is stored by the users. The United States FDA approved the medical use of IGF-1 in 2005. It is sold under the brand name of Increlex manufactured by the pharmaceutical company Tercica Inc. Tercica licenses this technology from Genentech, which was the first company to sell synthetic human growth hormone in the United States.

The effect of muscle hyperplasia that IGF1 can help promote is the primary reason why it has become so popular among bodybuilders. It is believed that IGF1 may be able to produce localized growth in the muscles that the IGF1 is administered into post-workout. However this effect of the hormone remains more theoretical in nature because of the lack of research available on the subject using human subjects. Despite this many users still claim that they have seen results from IGF1 when using it for this explicit purpose and it remains within the realm of possibilities. However simply because science can not discount the result as implausible does not mean that it is a given either. Among the other anabolic effects that IGF1 can produce in the body are things such as increasing protein synthesis, increasing nitrogen retention, as well as inducing the growth of more muscle fibers. When an appropriate amount of amino acids (protein) is available, all of these actions within the body are able to be completed. It has been demonstrated that IGF1 can help to improve collagen production as well as the reproduction of cartilage in joints.

The hormone has also been shown to exhibit the ability to act as a neuro-protector and promoter mainly because IGF1 receptors are located in the tissue of the brain. It has been demonstrated that there is a potential for when supplemented with IGF1 a decrease in the progress of some brain diseases can be brought about as well as slowing the deterioration of brain function in some elderly subjects. However similar findings or any evidence of improved brain function or capacity has not been demonstrated in young, healthy individuals. Obviously by helping to promote these anabolic mechanisms for growth IGF1 also acts as an anti-catabolic. This would be beneficial to those users in a calorie deficit or in other circumstances that place them at risk of losing muscle mass. IGF1 also has the ability to positively affect lipolysis in users if other necessary conditions are met, namely proper diet and training protocols. When combined with the ability to preserve muscle mass, IGF1 appears to be an attractive choice for those that are attempting to decrease their body fat while maintaining as much of their muscle mass as possible.

IGF1 is composed of seventy amino acids, the same number as insulin. As stated earlier, it is primarily secreted by the liver. The stimulus that is responsible for this secretion is the presence of growth hormone. In fact IGF1 is primarily the causal connection between growth hormone and its anabolic and anti-catabolic capabilities. This is not to say that effects caused by growth hormone could be produced with only IGF1, but rather that the two compounds are very much related to one another and both are needed for optimal tissue growth.

In terms of dosing for IGF-1, users have reported seen good results when administering dosing ranging from 100 to 160 mcg per day. This total dose would be split into several injections, most of which would likely be administered post-workout.
 

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CJC-1295 unleashing The Beast by increasing GH 10 times

So you want to look like the Hulk or maybe you just want to be lean and muscular. So what’s actually stopping you? Genetics… but what exactly is limiting your muscle growth, while at the same time limiting the burning of fat. Quite simply the answer is Myostatin. Myostatin is a direct negative regulator of the amount of skeletal muscle you have and how lean you are. Studies have proven this using mice with the myostatin knock out gene in which they don’t have myostatin to limit muscle growth. These Mighty lean ripped mice are called double muscled and they look like mice on steroids, all without working out. The prized winning Belgian Blue and Piedmontese cattle have mutations of myostatin resulting in double muscling. Mutations in humans have been shown too have the same results.

So what is CJC-1295 and what does it have to do with myostatin you ask… CJC-1295 is a long acting synthetic version of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH). 30mcg/kg to 60mcg/kg doses can increase gh levels up to 10X normal for 6 days or more with plasma IGF-1 concentrations by 3X for 9-11 days. The estimated 1/2 life is 5.8-8.1 days. After multiple doses the mean IGF-1 levels remain above base level for up to 28 days. Results show that 30mcg/kg CJC-1295 is equal to 5iu’s of gh without the normal negative side effects from taking gh. In essence its much better to use CJC-1295 to make your body produce its own gh instead of taking a synthetic gh that also shuts down your normal production. So how does CJC-1295 and Myostatin relate. Growth hormone directly regulates myostatin. As growth hormone rises, myostatin lowers, which unleashes your potential for muscle growth. As myostatin lowers glucocorticoids effect on fat storage and muscle breakdown lowers. CJC-1295 dramatically raises gh levels which will dramatically lower myostatin which in turn will lower the effects of glucocorticoids fat storage and muscle breakdown. Now you know what has changed that has turned the Pro’s into Freaks.

Steroids GH Myostatin Link

Read this study carefully, it will show that raising testosterone to supraphysiological levels increased pulsatile gh secretion. Supraphysiological is the key word here, cause anything less has no effect. Supraphysiological Test Levels increase GH

This study shows that androgens directly increase gh output without estrogen. Androgens directly increase GH

Raising Testosterone levels lowers Growth Hormone Binding Protein. This protein binds up excess gh. Testosterone lowering GHBP if you read the full text you will figure out that it’s the spike in Test levels above normal from the shots that lowers GHBP proving that supraphysiological test levels raise gh and lowers GHBP

As you can see androgens can directly and indirectly raise growth hormone levels resulting in lowering Myostatin which you already learned increases muscle mass. On a side note leptin has a huge role in fat storage and as gh raises, leptin lowers. I won’t delve into discussing leptin cause it can be complicated so do a search to learn more…

CJC-1295
Anti-Aging
Lets go beyond muscle building and fat loss and discuss the well documented anti-aging benefits of growth hormone. Since this info is so plenty full online I’ll only outline the known benefits and let you fulfill you quest for Anti-Aging by doing your own research. The rate of GH secretion from the pituitary gland is at its peak around puberty, declining progressively as we age beyond that point. Around the late 30s and throughout the 40s, GH levels continue to dip considerably, causing the telltale signs of aging to appear. Fat tissue begins to collect in areas where it may have not before, the skin begins to lose thickness, bone mass becomes depleted, energy levels drop, and mental clarity may become clouded.

For the purposes of anti-aging therapy, GH treatment functions to re-stimulate cell production to youthful levels restoring form and function to the entire body, from the inside out. Those who have undergone successful anti-aging treatment with GH or a combination of GH and other diminishing hormones such as testosterone have been reported to experience improvement in the skin’s appearance, renewed energy, mental acuity, invigorated health, enhanced sexual function, an overall sense of well being and a more youthful lean muscled look. Hundreds of studies have been done on the controlled administration of true HGH in adults. It has been shown to raise energy levels, enhance lean muscle development, decrease body fat, strengthen the heart, improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels and HDL/LDL ratios, fortify bones, smooth out skin wrinkles, sharpen memory, improve sexual function, regenerate damaged tissue, strengthen the immune system as well as improve sleep.

Somatotropin (HGH) from the pituitary gland works by stimulating protein production and synthesis in all tissues of the body. This results in an increase in organ healing and regeneration, which is associated with increase resistance to illness and injury.

In the skin, documentation regarding somatotropin (HGH) supplementation has shown increased collagen synthesis, which makes the skin thicker and smoother. In the bone, these studies showed increased bone density. In the internal organs and sex organs, research showed increased size and markedly improved function.
The immune system, research also showed increased immune system regulation and activity, resulting in fewer infectious illnesses. In adults, HGH is necessary for proper repair and regeneration of injured tissues.
One of the widely reported results of somatotropin (HGH) supplementation is the effect it has on the body’s sexual centers. Research shows heightened desire and function in both men and women.

Beginning around the age of 20 years old, our natural production of somatotropin (HGH) begins to decline at the average rate of 14% per decade.
By the age of 40, somatotropin (HGH) production has decreased 30% over our youthful production level, and by the age of 60, by 80% on average. The decline in somatotropin (HGH) correlates with many of the effects of aging including loss of lean body mass (muscle, bone, skin and internal organs), increase in total body fat, thinning and wrinkling of skin, decreased immune function and decreased sexual desire and function.
As a result of the decline in somatotropin (HGH), and because it is the master hormone, other hormones also decline with age, such as Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone and DHEA, as well as many other important mood-elevating hormones. Examples of other hormones that also decrease are thyroid and thymus hormones, which can cause menopause in women and andropause in men.

Growth Hormone can:

Restore muscle loss
Increase skin thickness
Reduce total body fat
Improve bone density

People have seen specific improvements from using HGH in:

Skin tightness and moisture
Mental speed and clarity
Enhanced sexual function
Elevated mood and energy levels
Improved aerobic capacity
Significantly greater immune function
Increased wound healing capacity

So, gh therapy sounds great for anti-aging so what’s the catch… The catch is keeping your levels in a physicological level and to not exceed youthful levels. As with any hormone, raising levels above youthful normal levels can cause unwanted side effects which are easily noticed like joint problems, the development of carpel tunnel and excess water weight gain. Its simple, just lower your dose if you notice a problem. There is a huge difference between keeping levels well above normal for years for anti-aging and doing a cycle with gh/cjc-1295 that exceed normal levels. Short term higher levels have much less potitential to cause long term problems… Ok, so you are interested in anti-aging with cjc-1295, what dose should you use. When taking into consideration the studies on it’s outcome of gh production, as little as 1mg weekly is needed and no more then 2mg a week. This makes CJC-1295 extremely cost effective. Vials could be shared with fellow researchers if only 1mg is used weekly. The lab states after reconsituting cjc-1295 it can be refrozen to be used later but is best used without refreezing, so there may be a slight potiency loss by doing this.

Dosing for Muscle Growth

In the studies 30mcg/kg or 60mcg/kg were used resulting in 2-10 fold in gh production. A 200lb man weighs aprox 90kg… thats 200 divided by 2.2 = 90 so thats 30mcg X 90=2700mcg=2.7mg or 60mcg X 90=5400mcg=5.4mg weekly these doses showed safety… I believe a minimum 2mg a week should be used and no more then 6mg… You decided but I say start low and work your way up to the dose you are comfortable with and remember to keep this short term to reach a specific goal and then go on an anti-aging dose between cycles which would also preserve the muscle growth you build during the cycle.

Stop Wasting Your Money On GH

..CJC-1295 Is More Effective
..costs much less
..less side effects because its your natural gh
..doesn’t shut you down
..Increase Natural GH 10X
..unleash
..Anti-Aging Benefits

Storage: Refrigerate… 1yr + storage in the fridge
Reconstituted:After reconstituting with Bacteriostatic Water use within 3-5 day

FROM VISIONS
get your CJC-1295 by clicking the banner link in my signature
 

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Hey basskiller ur pretty in tune with peps it seems ...ok im on gh now but i wanna get the full benefit of it ...i heaf igf long lastin pep is great and what u mention seems to be amazin now is that somethin u would run with gh and aas ? I mean i hear of people usin insulin too ...i just dont want a load of chemicals too take .....u or any vet please chime in
 

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Hey basskiller ur pretty in tune with peps it seems ...ok im on gh now but i wanna get the full benefit of it ...i heaf igf long lastin pep is great and what u mention seems to be amazin now is that somethin u would run with gh and aas ? I mean i hear of people usin insulin too ...i just dont want a load of chemicals too take .....u or any vet please chime in
There have been a lot of people that have used a combo of aas as well as insulin with GH. One of my first teachers, A man that used the handle ironmaster, years ago said there was a great synergy between GH and dbol (meaning an oral aas) Now this was probably 12 or 13 years ago and I really don't remember the aspects of it. But judging by his pics, he was doing something right. He, like I was an and older gentlemen.
GH by itself is mainly used by older guys. While people will see some benefit from using it alone, it's really wasteful for younger guys to be taking it alone.
In order to get the very most from it, AAs and slin have to be used. I understand where your coming from not wanting to load up with a ton of extras to make one thing work better. But knowing that, I think I would have chosen another route to take to meet my goals.. I bet it also would be much less expensive.

I have an article written by an old friend Red Baron.. I'll post that up next.

A warning.. Insulin is not something to take lightly. Before I ever used it.. I researched the hell out of it. Back then, You really had to search .. Now there are places that have put all this info in pretty much one place. Many sites have forums dedicated to this one drug alone.. It wasn't like that back when I started.
I have a pretty good collection of insulin articles also.
 

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HGH + IGF-1 + Insulin - A basic guide

There are volumes of information and studies available about using HGH, IGF-1, and Insulin, but for the most part coming up with a good cycle including all of these is a tedious process and requires more reading than most people wish to do or have the time to do. The following is meant to a quick and simple reference to what a cycle including all three might look like and a brief description of the action of each component.

THE CYCLE



Buy one get one free on all products Weeks 1- (20-30) - HGH - On 5/ off 2
2 - 2.5 IU's first thing in the morning
2 - 2.5 IU's early afternoon
injected Sub-C into abdomen, obliques, fronts of the thighs, upper triceps

Weeks 1-5, 11-15, (21-25) - Long R3 IGF-1 - Every day
60mcg's intramuscular post work out on workout days,
first thing in the morning on non workout days

Weeks 6-10, 16-20, (26-30) - Humalog - Workout days only
8IU's immediately post workout, intramuscular
*** alternatively, you could run the Humalog on 1-5, 11-15, (21-25) with your LR3 if you prefer, depending on your cycle goal***

Immediately after Humalog injection - do the following
Injection + 5 minutes - drink shake with 10g glutamine / 10g creatine / 55g dextrose
Injection + 15 minutes - drink shake with 80g of whey protein in water
Injection + 60 - 75 minutes - eat a protein / carb meal with 40-50g of protein, 40-50g of carbs, NO FATS
Avoid fats for 2-3 hours for Humalog IM, 3-4 hours for Humalog sub-q, 4-5 hours for Humulin-R.
**keep some glucose tablets or other simple carbs on hand for the active window of your insulin. Hypo symptoms can and will hit hard and fast and you will have little time to react. This is the main danger of insulin use. Be ready.***

OPTIONAL
T3 - 12.5mcg per day (or 12.5mcgs ->100-150mcgs ->12.5mcgs if used for fat loss instead of protein synthesis assist)

HGH



HGH should ideally be used for 20-30 week cycles (or longer). The dosage should be between 2-3IU per day if you are using GH primarily for fat loss, 4-5 IU's a day for both fat loss and muscle growth, and approximately 1.0 - 2.0 IU's a day for females. It is best to split your injections 1/2 first thing in the morning, 1/2 early afternoon if your dose is above 2.0IU's per day. Your pituitary will naturally produce about 10 pulses of GH per day. Each injection you take will create a negative feedback loop that will suppress these pulses for about 4 hours. By taking your injections first thing in the morning and early afternoon you will still allow your body to release its biggest pulse, which normally occurs shortly after going to sleep at night.

When starting out with your HGH cycle, for most people it is wise to begin you dose at 1.5 - 2.0IU per day for the first couple of weeks, and then begin increasing your dose by 0.5 to 1.0 units every week or two until you reach your desired level. While it isn't an absolute necessity to do this, if you are sensitive to the type of sides HGH present you will often times avoid these sides of joint pain/swelling, and bloating/water retention by slowly acclimating to your ultimate 4-5 IU's /day goal.

You should use an U100 insulin syringe for injecting HGH, and inject it Sub-C into your abdomen, obliques, top of thighs, triceps. Rotate injection sites. HGH can have a small localized fat loss benefit, so keep this in mind when choosing your injection sites.

IGF-1
When HGH makes it pass through the liver, a release of IGF-1 is a result. IGF-1 appears to be the key player in muscle growth. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblast. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues. While HGH will cause an increase in your IGF-1 level over the course of a few months, HGH has a cumulative effect, so the addition of IGF-1 will greatly speed up the time to results.

There are two types of IGF-1 that will typically be used by bodybuilders. One is bio-identical HuIGF-1, a 70 amino acid string. The other is Long R3 IGF-1, which is an 83 amino acid analog of human IGF-I comprising the complete human IGF-I sequence with the substitution of an Arg for the Glu at position 3 (hence R3), and a 13 amino acid extension peptide at the N-terminus (hence the long). Which of these you use depends on your goal.

HuIGF-1 is very short lived in the body (half life of probably around 10 minutes). This type of IGF-1 is very useful if you are seeking local site growth. Since it is so short lived, little of the IGF-1 makes it to other tissues and IGF-1 receptors in the body. The way to inject this is immediately post work out into the muscle that you wish to have local site growth. Use a U100 insulin syringe, and inject 80mcg's bilaterally into the desired muscle immediately post workout. For this type of IGF-1, I would use it workout days only or if desired you could inject on non-workout days first thing in the morning into a muscle group worked the previous day.

For Long R3 IGF-1, it isn't as critical that you inject into a local site as long R3 has a active window of many hours, and is designed specifically to resist being bound. Since it is common to reconstitute this type of IGF-1 with Benzyl Alcohol, Acetic Acid, or Hydrochloric Acid I would still recommend that you inject intra-muscular. It can and probably will leave a nice red irritated spot if you inject Sub-C. I still inject into a muscle just worked to take advantage of increased IGF-1 receptors, but because of the long activity window of this type of IGF-1 any muscle will work well and give you good results,. I would suggest that you inject between 40-80mcg's per day everyday immediately post workout on workout days, and first thing in the morning on non-workout days.

Use a U-100 insulin syringe with 1/2" needle to inject IGF-1 intramuscular (bilaterally for HuIGF-1, bilaterally optional for Long R3)


Insulin
Working out causes us to end up in a catabolic state. It is important to back in a positive nitrogen balance as soon as possible. When not using insulin, we drink some dextrose with our protein to cause an insulin spike immediately post workout to help shuttle the protein and sugars to the muscles.

Insulin is very good at shuttling nutrients to the muscles, and works in a very complimentary manner with GH in the types of things that they shuttle. Also, HGH can cause an amount of insulin resistance, so adding some insulin to your cycle will offset any potential resistance that might occur during your HGH cycle.

For the purposes that we are using insulin, a dosage of 4-10IU's is adequate and should be used immediately post workout. I personally prefer using Humalog intramuscular as it will cause a rapid spike and clear out of your system quickly. You can use it sub-q or use Humulin-R instead, but each of these will result in a longer active window, thus a longer time to avoid eating any fats and watching your carb intake. Any fats or over abundance of carbs will end up being stored as fat during insulin's active window. The approximate windows are:
Humalog
Intramuscular ---- 2-3 hours
subcutaneous --- 3-4 hours
Humulin R
Intramuscular ---- 3-4 hours
subcutaneous --- 4-5 hours

Use a U-100 insulin syringe with 1/2" needle to inject IM immediately post workout. Alternatively, you can inject Sub-C if desired or if you wish a longer active window for some reason. Begin with a dose of 2IU's or so, and increase the dose each workout day until you reach your 8IU's.

If for some reason you wish to avoid insulin, I would still suggest that immediately post workout you spike you own endogenous insulin by drinking 80 grams of dextrose / 40 grams of whey isolate protein. While this certainly won't do the work of 8-10 IU's of Humalog, it will most certainly assist getting your muscle back in a nitrogen positive environment in a short amount of time.
T3
HGH can have a slight inhibitory effect on your thyroid. For most people this is minimal and does not require any additional thyroid be taken, but if you wish to augment protein synthesis as well as give yourself a slight boost in thyroid without shutting down your own production, you can add 12.5mcg of T3 daily to your HGH, IGF-1, Insulin cycle. This will aid both in bulking and cutting.

If you add this, you should also consider taking some thyroid support supplements such as t-100x, bladderwrack, coleus forskolin. You should check and make sure your intake of trace minerals (selenium, zinc, copper) is sufficient to aid in the conversion of T4 to T3.

If you are going to take more than 12.5 mcg of T3, you will need to cycle the dose both up and down to avoid a rebound effect when going off cycle, but for our use with an HGH cycle and use in assisting with protein synthesis, 12.5mcg will be sufficient. If you wish to use T3 in conjunction with the above for heavy cutting, begin with 12.5mcgs, ramp up to 100-150mcgs, then slowly back down tapering back to 12.5 mcgs for a time before discontinuing use. This will minimize the chance for rebound while your own thyroid gets back in gear.

Well, I think that about covers it. add a cycle or two of your favorite testosterone and you have a great combination for bulking or cutting.
By RED BARON
 

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Melanotan II

Melanotan II was developed originally as potential preventative treatments for various forms of skin cancer. It was thought that by artificially stimulating the internal tanning process among members of the population that were at high risk to develop skin cancer due to sun exposure that one may be able to lower the chances of these individuals from developing the disease later in life. While these findings have been relatively inconclusive in terms of the original intent of the product a few secondary uses for the drug have been found and are now utilized by many.


The IGF-1's are excluded from this sale

The main purpose that both Melanotan and Melanotan II are now administered for is their ability to act as a tanning agent. Both are synthetic hormones that once introduced into the body are able to cause a reaction within it that is similar to the natural tanning process that one goes through without the risks or need for sunlight to be present, while remembering that some of the benefits of exposure to the sun will also not be present. Along with the benefits of providing a tan without the need for extensive exposure to sunlight as well as improved sexual performance and/or desire, Melanotan II also may help to decrease the appetite via targeting an appetite-suppression receptor in the brain. This effect is not an overwhelming one but is noticeable for the majority of users and desirable for many. The duration of the tanning effect of the drug once a user ceases administering it will once again depend on several factors. The majority of users however will notice that the tan achieved with the drug will fade and become unnoticeable within four to eight weeks after ceasing the administration of the drug.

The libido enhancement and sexual performance benefits will fade much quicker along with the appetite suppressing effect. The tan that is created is considered a “natural” one in both the reaction that causes it in the body as well as the outward appearance of the skin once the drug has taken full effect. It should be noted however that to achieve the full effect of the hormones one will still have to expose themselves to sunlight and/or artificial tanning beds, etc. Unlike Melanotan however, Melanotan II has libido and sexual performance enhancing capabilities. This is due to Melanotan II having the metabolite Bremelanotide. Bremelanotide is currently under research as a possible treatment for various forms of sexual dysfunction, including both sexual arousal disorders as well as erectile dysfunction. Since however Bremelanotide has not been made available for use by the general public, for those wanting to reap its benefits in terms of its sexual performance improvements, Melanotan II is the only option at this point. It is believed that the source of this improvement in both sexual performance and arousal is the action of the hormone on the hypothalamus of the user. This, however, is still a theory in need of further investigation.

For most individuals, during the loading phase with the hormone, a range of between 0.015 to 0.02 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per injection should be sufficient. These injections would take place anywhere from twice daily to as infrequently as once every other day or longer. For the maintenance phase many individuals will find that a dose of approximately 0.01 milligrams per kilogram of body weight administered once every few days should be sufficient to maintain the effects of the hormone. As stated however, the reactions to Melanotan II are highly individualized so experimentation when first using this hormone will be necessitated. As always, lower doses should be utilized to begin with and increased as needed and as one is able to gage their tolerance for the drug.
 
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Anti-aging Growth Hormone Peptide

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) Dosage:

Month 1: HGH 2 IU one injection every other day
Months 2-4: HGH 3 IU one injection five days a week
Months 5-6: HGH 4 IU one injection five days a week
4-6 month cycles are optimal, year round if you are over age 35.
muscle building growth hormone

Human Growth Hormone (rHGH, HGH, or GH) is a protein molecule consisting of 191 amino acids. Genetically engineered human growth hormone is completely identical to the growth hormone made by the pituitary gland. Researchers have proven growth hormone therapy can reverse the biological effects of aging. HGH is widely appreciated for aesthetics and body recomposition, not necessarily as a performance enhancer.

HGH is released in pulses that take place during the day. Growth hormone is rapidly converted in the liver to its powerful growth promoting metabolite, Insulin like Growth Factor. IGF-1 is measured in the blood to determine the level of growth hormone secretion. Most of the beneficial effects of human growth hormone are directly attributable to IGF-1. Growth hormone replacement/stimulation is the most effective therapy to reverse the effects of aging.

At age 30 people have people have spent most of their lives with relatively high levels of HGH. HGH is responsible for growth during childhood as well as for repair and regeneration of tissue. By the time we are 30 our bodies no longer naturally produce enough GH to handle the damage that is taking place. As this continues, we age. Increasing HGH in our bodies, we can slow, or even reverse many of the manifestations of aging.






What HGH can do:
•Reduce excess body fat, especially abdominal fat. (The reduction of abdominal fat is the single most profound effect of HGH replacement in many people)
•Decrease in the waist to hip ratio. (Meaning fat is removed primarily from around the waist where it is associated with a high risk of coronary disease)
•Increase muscle mass and bone density. (and physical strength if combined with moderate exercise)
•Reduce wrinkling of the skin and some other effects of skin aging.
•Strengthen the immune system & enhance feeling of well being.

Human Growth Hormone takes several weeks to months of use benefit from its effects. There are a number of substances that increase the natural secretion of HGH. Some of them are amino acids. The relationship of certain amino acids to growth hormone is complex and varies greatly among different individuals and among individuals of different ages.

HGH is a Bodybuilding Research Peptide that comes in the form of lyophilized powder. Any other form that you see advertised or run across is likely NOT the real deal. The only way to administer true HGH is by sub-q or intramuscular injection. Be aware that HGH is not anabolic by itself. Careful measures need to be in place during reconstitution.

Reconstituting HGH, one vial contains powdered freeze-dried HGH and the other vial contains sterile water with a bacteriostatic preservative. When the user is ready to begin, a certain amount of the sterile water is drawn out of the second vial (with a needle and syringe) and injected into the first vial to dissolve the powdered HGH. The solution is then ready for injection. The unused portion is to be kept refrigerated. Use reconstituted HGH within 3 or 4 weeks.

The best way to begin HGH is to start with a low dose and ease your way into higher doses. This will allow you to avoid (or at least minimize) many of the more common sides of HGH such as lethargy, bloating and joint pain. Most can tolerate 1-2 IU per day with few sides. HGH administration should be done on an empty stomach as fats and carbohydrates blunt release. Natural production of GH is 1 IU, give or take a half.

Half life of HGH is 2 hours when injected sub-q with a four hour period which there is a suppression of naturally produced GH. Intramuscular injections shorten the half life. Subcutaneous injections over the long term can lead to spot reduction. Whether or not HGH has any localized benefit from IM injection is unknown, but speculated.

For bodybuilders growth hormone is best taken in conjunction with insulin, anabolics/androgens, and thyroid hormone. Insulin is extremely effective with HGH as the injections cause a down regulation of insulin sensitivity in the body. HGH is tightly regulated by the FDA, but HGH is not a controlled substance on the federal level in the United States.
 

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HGH fragment 176-191

* Reduces the most stubborn abdominal fat.
* Increases muscle mass.
* Increases IGF-1 levels, in an effective manner, thus making this a peptide that burns fat and exhibits anabolic function.
* Increases energy expenditure.
* Improves lipid profiles and lipolytic activity.
* Does not negatively impact blood glucose level, nor does cell proliferation occur, like Human Growth Hormone.
* Extremely potent and effective fat burner.




The (HGH fragment 176-191) is a stabilized analogue of the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) that induces growth hormone (GH) in a specific and physiological manner. To date studies suggest that (HGH fragment 176-191) has several beneficial features: it reduces abdominal fat (in particular visceral fat), without compromising glycemic control (blood glucose), it increases muscle mass and improves the lipid profile. These characteristics make it an ideal candidate for the treatment of excess abdominal fat, an important aspect of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

At a dosage of 500mcg the (HGH fragment 176-191) was shown to increase lipolytic activity in adipose tissue. In other words this fragment potently burns body fat, especially stubborn adipose body fat, and it does so potently! Of significance, is that the fragment has no negative impact on insulin sensitivity, a stark contrast from its Human Growth Hormone counterpart.(Ng FM, Sun J,Sharma L, Libinaka R, Jiang WJ, and Gianello R 2000).

Not only does the (HGH fragment 176-191) not interfere with the body~~~8217;s natural insulin regulation as Human Growth Hormone can, the (HGH fragment 176-191) does not result in cellular proliferation as Human Growth Hormone does. The fragment is similar to Human Growth Hormone, hence the shared amino acid sequence, however, the (HGH fragment 176-191) does not induce hyperglycaemia or reduce insulin secretion. The (HGH fragment 176-191) does not compete for the hGH receptor and nor does it induce cell proliferation, unlike Human Growth Hormone. (Wu Z, Ng FM. 1993). Thusly, this is a very beneficial peptide in terms of burning fat, without unwanted and undesirable side effects. Of particular note is the fragments ability to increase IGF-1 levels which translate into the fragments ability to give collateral anti-aging and anabolic effects along with its ability to induce lipplytic (fat burning) activity.

In yet another study, the (HGH fragment 176-191) exhibits the ability to burn through adipose tissue by increasing lipolytic activity (the breakdown of fat) , in the most stubborn body fat (adipose tissue) while increasing energy expenditure and glucose and fat oxidation in ob/ob mice treated with (HGH fragment 176-191). In addition, (HGH fragment 176-191) increased in vitro lipolytic activity and decreased lipogenic activity in isolated adipose tissue from obese rodents and humans.(Heffernan MA, Jiang WJ, Thorburn AW, Ng FM. 2000).

Thusly, the (HGH fragment 176-191) exhibits the ability to burn through stubborn adipose tissue, while increasing energy expenditure, muscle mass, and fat oxidation. All studies have pointed to the fact that the fragment is an effective treatment for obesity and fat loss, and much safer than its Human Growth Hormone counterpart.

Includes Sodium Chloride for Dilution, all vials are dosed at 2mg (2000mcg).

hgh1.jpg


-The mean Relative Insulin Resistance (RIR) increased in all groups with no statistically significant differences among groups (Figure 2).
-There were no statistically significant treatment differences in the changes from the baseline in fasting insulin levels and OGTT insulin (data not shown).
hgh2.jpg


-At week 12, a statistically significant treatment difference (p=0.04, ANOVA) in mean total cholesterol was observed.
-Values increased by 5% and 3% in the placebo and 1 mg groups, respectively and decreased by 6% in the 2mg group (Figure 5).
-Changes were significantly different in the 2mg group when compared to the placebo and 1mg groups (p<0.05), and were mainly explained by comparable changes in the mean non-HDL cholesterol values (Figure 5.).
-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels remained unchanged (data not shown).
hgh3.jpg

-Mean IGF-1 levels increased in a dose dependant manner over the study period (Figure 6).
-IGF-1 increases were associated with no clear dose-related pattern of adverse events suspected to be related to the study drug.
.

RESEARCH DOSAGE: frag 176-191


500mcg-2mg every day
STORAGE:
REFRGIRATE UPON RECEIPT.
KEEP REFRIGERATED AFTER RECONSTITUTION ALLOW 24 HOURS FOR THE PEPTIDE TO SETTLE BEFORE BEGINNING YOUR RESEARCH.
NCLUDES SODIUM CHLORIDE FOR DILUTION Academic References & Further Information
Heffernan MA, Jiang WJ, Thorburn AW, Ng FM. (2000). Effects of oral administration of a synthetic fragment of human growth hormone on lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;279(3):E501-7.
Ng FM, Sun J,Sharma L, Libinaka R, Jiang WJ, and Gianello R (2000). Metabolic studies of a synthetic lipolytic domain (AOD9604) of human growth hormone. Horm Res. 2000;53(6):274-8.
Wu Z, Ng FM (1993). Antilipogenic action of synthetic C-terminal sequence 177-191 of human growth hormone. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1993 May;30(1):187-96.
 

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Basskiller thanks for this. Highly educational and informative.
 
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basskiller

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CJC-1295 studies

Endocrinology. 2005 Jul;146(7):3052-8. Epub 2005 Apr 7.
Human growth hormone-releasing factor (hGRF)1-29-albumin bioconjugates activate the GRF receptor on the anterior pituitary in rats: identification of CJC-1295 as a long-lasting GRF analog.
Jetté L, Léger R, Thibaudeau K, Benquet C, Robitaille M, Pellerin I, Paradis V, van Wyk P, Pham K, Bridon DP.
Source

Department of Research, ConjuChem Inc., 225 President-Kennedy Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 3Y8.
Abstract

In vivo bioconjugation to the free thiol on Cys34 of serum albumin by a strategically placed reactive group on a bioactive peptide is a useful tool to extend plasma half-life. Three maleimido derivates of human GH-releasing factor (hGRF)(1-29) were synthesized and bioconjugated to human serum albumin ex vivo. All three human serum albumin conjugates showed enhanced in vitro stability against dipeptidylpeptidase-IV and were bioactive in a GH secretion assay in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. When the maleimido derivatives were individually administered sc to normal male Sprague Dawley rats, an acute secretion of GH was measured in plasma. The best compound, CJC-1295, showed a 4-fold increase in GH area under the curve over a 2-h period compared with hGRF(1-29). CJC-1295, a tetrasubstituted form of hGRF(1-29) with an added N epsilon-3-maleimidopropionamide derivative of lysine at the C terminus, was selected for further pharmacokinetic evaluation, where it was found to be present in plasma beyond 72 h. A Western blot analysis of the plasma of a rat injected with CJC-1295 showed the presence of a CJC-1295 immunoreactive species on the band corresponding to serum albumin, appearing after 15 min and remaining in circulation beyond 24 h. These results led to the identification of CJC-1295 as a stable and active hGRF(1-29) analog with an extended plasma half-life.

PMID:
15817669
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):799-805. Epub 2005 Dec 13.
Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults.
Teichman SL, Neale A, Lawrence B, Gagnon C, Castaigne JP, Frohman LA.
Source

WinPharm Associates, Alamo, CA 94507, USA.
Abstract
CONTEXT:

Therapeutic use of GHRH to enhance GH secretion is limited by its short duration of action.
OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects, and safety of CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog.
DESIGN:

The study design was two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, ascending dose trials with durations of 28 and 49 d.
SETTING:

The study was performed at two investigational sites.
PARTICIPANTS:

Healthy subjects, ages 21-61 yr, were studied.
INTERVENTIONS:

CJC-1295 or placebo was administered sc in one of four ascending single doses in the first study and in two or three weekly or biweekly doses in the second study.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The main outcome measures were peak concentrations and area under the curve of GH and IGF-I; standard pharmacokinetic parameters were used for CJC-1295.
RESULTS:

After a single injection of CJC-1295, there were dose-dependent increases in mean plasma GH concentrations by 2- to 10-fold for 6 d or more and in mean plasma IGF-I concentrations by 1.5- to 3-fold for 9-11 d. The estimated half-life of CJC-1295 was 5.8-8.1 d. After multiple CJC-1295 doses, mean IGF-I levels remained above baseline for up to 28 d. No serious adverse reactions were reported.
CONCLUSIONS:

Subcutaneous administration of CJC-1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 microg/kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after multiple doses. These data support the potential utility of CJC-1295 as a therapeutic agent.

PMID:
16352683
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1290-4. Epub 2006 Jul 5.
Once-daily administration of CJC-1295, a long-acting growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, normalizes growth in the GHRH knockout mouse.
Alba M, Fintini D, Sagazio A, Lawrence B, Castaigne JP, Frohman LA, Salvatori R.
Source

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Abstract

Although the majority of children with isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency have a good growth response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), the use of this therapeutic agent is limited by its very short half-life. Indeed, we have shown that, in mice with GHRH gene ablation (GHRH knockout; GHRHKO), even twice-daily injections of a GHRH analog are unable to normalize growth. CJC-1295 is a synthetic GHRH analog that selectively and covalently binds to endogenous albumin after injection, thereby extending its half-life and duration of action. We report the effects of CJC-1295 administration in GHRHKO animals. Three groups of 1-wk-old GHRHKO mice were treated for 5 wk with 2 microg of CJC-1295 at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Placebo-treated GHRHKO mice and mice heterozygous for the GHRHKO allele served as controls. GHRHKO animals receiving daily doses of CJC-1295 exhibited normal body weight and length. Mice treated every 48 and 72 h reached higher body weight and length than placebo-treated animals, without full growth normalization. Femur and tibia length remained normal in animals treated every 24 and 48 h. Relative lean mass and subcutaneous fat mass were normal in all treated groups. CJC-1295 caused an increase in total pituitary RNA and GH mRNA, suggesting that proliferation of somatotroph cells had occurred, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry images. These findings demonstrate that treatment with once-daily administration of CJC-1295 is able to maintain normal body composition and growth in GHRHKO mice. The same dose is less effective when administered every 48 or 72 h.

PMID:
16822960
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;91(12):4792-7. Epub 2006 Oct 3.
Pulsatile secretion of growth hormone (GH) persists during continuous stimulation by CJC-1295, a long-acting GH-releasing hormone analog.
Ionescu M, Frohman LA.
Source

Section of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1747 West Roosevelt Road, Room 517, Chicago, Illinois 60608, USA.
Abstract
CONTEXT:

Pulsatile GH secretion is considered important for many of the hormone's physiological effects. Short-term GHRH infusions enhance GH pulsatility and increase IGF-I, but the short GHRH half-life limits its therapeutic use. A synthetic GHRH analog (CJC-1295) that binds permanently to endogenous albumin after injection (half-life = 8 d) stimulates GH and IGF-I secretion in several animal species and in normal human subjects and enhances growth in rats.
OBJECTIVE:

Our objective was to assess GH pulsatility after a single injection of CJC-1295 and determine which GH secretion parameters correlated to the increase in IGF-I production.
METHODS:

GH pulsatility was assessed by 20-min blood sampling during an overnight 12-h period in healthy 20- to 40-yr-old men before and 1 wk after injection of either 60 or 90 microg/kg CJC-1295.
RESULTS:

GH secretion was increased after CJC-1295 administration with preserved pulsatility. The frequency and magnitude of GH secretory pulses were unaltered. However, basal (trough) GH levels were markedly increased (7.5-fold; P < 0.0001) and contributed to an overall increase in GH secretion (mean GH levels, 46%; P < 0.01) and IGF-I levels (45%; P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the responses to the two drug doses. The IGF-I increases did not correlate with any parameters of GH secretion.
CONCLUSIONS:

CJC-1295 increased trough and mean GH secretion and IGF-I production with preserved GH pulsatility. The marked enhancement of trough GH levels by continuous GHRH stimulation implicates the importance of this effect on increasing IGF-I. Long-acting GHRH preparations may have clinical utility in patients with intact pituitary GH secretory capability.

PMID:
17018654
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Drug Test Anal. 2010 Nov-Dec;2(11-12):647-50. doi: 10.1002/dta.233. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
Identification of CJC-1295, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, in an unknown pharmaceutical preparation.
Henninge J, Pepaj M, Hullstein I, Hemmersbach P.
Source

Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo University Hospital. john.henninge@h-lab.no
Abstract

Several peptide drugs are being manufactured illicitly, and in some cases they are being made available to the public before entering or completing clinical trials. At the request of Norwegian police and customs authorities, unknown pharmaceutical preparations suspected to contain peptide drugs are regularly subjected to analysis. In 2009, an unknown pharmaceutical preparation was submitted for analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). The preparation was found to contain a 29 amino acid peptide with a C-terminal amide function. Based on the interpretation of mass spectrometric data, an amino acid sequence was proposed. The sequence is consistent with a peptide currently marketed under the name CJC-1295. CJC-1295 is a releasing factor for growth hormone and is therefore considered a Prohibited Substance under Section S2 of the WADA Prohibited List. This substance has potential performance-enhancing effects, it is readily available, and there is reason to believe that it is being used within the bodybuilding community.

Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID:
21204297
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Growth Horm IGF Res. 2009 Dec;19(6):471-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ghir.2009.03.001. Epub 2009 Apr 21.
Activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis by CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog, results in serum protein profile changes in normal adult subjects.
Sackmann-Sala L, Ding J, Frohman LA, Kopchick JJ.
Source

Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, United States.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To identify biomarkers of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) action in human serum.
BACKGROUND:

The search for new markers of GH activity has received extensive attention given that the current biomarkers (IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and collagen peptides) show substantial variability in the population, and are not reliably predictive of either the physiologic effects of GH therapy or the detection of GH abuse by athletes. GH releasing hormone (GHRH) is a polypeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus that binds to receptors on pituitary somatotropes to promote the synthesis and release of GH. Serum GH and IGF-1 levels have been shown to increase with administration of GHRH or CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog.
DESIGN:

Sera from 11 healthy young adult men before and one week after CJC-1295 injection were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic changes. Serum proteins displaying significant changes before and after treatment were subsequently identified using mass spectrometry. In addition, correlations between these proteins and GH or IGF-1 levels were evaluated.
RESULTS:

Two protein spots that displayed decreased intensities after treatment were identified as an apolipoprotein A1 isoform and a transthyretin isoform. Three protein spots upregulated by CJC-1295 treatment included beta-hemoglobin, a C-terminal fragment of albumin, and a mix of an immunoglobulin fragment and another C-terminal albumin fragment. A linear relationship was found between the spot containing immunoglobulin and albumin fragments and IGF-1 levels.
CONCLUSIONS:

Although the molecular mechanisms linking the identified proteins to GH and IGF-1 biological activity remain to be clarified, the results suggest that they represent potential biomarkers of GH and/or IGF-1 action.

PMID:
19386527
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2787983
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

as posted by Liftsiron on his site Peak-muscle.com
 
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basskiller

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Bremelanotide PT-141 Instruction

Bremelanotide PT 141 Dosage:

Light: .5mg
Common: 1mg
Large: 2mg

Trusted Supplier: PT-141

Bremelanotide PT-141 was developed from Melanotan 2 (MT-II). PT-141 is a metabolite of melanocyte stimulating hormone that targets desire.



PT-141 Bremelanotide molecule research chemical

Treatment: PT-141 is the only synthetic aphrodisiac. The aphrodisiac effects of Bremelanotide are in a class of its own. Studies have shown Bremelanotide to be effective in treating sexual dysfunction in both men (erectile dysfunction or impotence) and women (sexual arousal disorder). Nine out of ten volunteers experienced sexual arousal in clinical trials. Unlike Viagra and other related medications (PDE5s – blood pushers), PT-141 acts upon the nervous system. Viagra, Cials and Levitra are not considered aphrodisiacs as they do not have any direct effect on the libido. However, treatment with PDE5 inhibitors and PT-141 have known synergy.

Men’s Journal Magazine: …it took hold. I felt a great surge of affection (greater than any regular level of arousal). My body tingled and I developed an erection that wouldn’t quit. For two hours the drug wouldn’t let me out of its grasp — nor my wife out of mine.

Men’s Journal PT-141

Females: Women who took part in trials said that they felt a “tingling and a throbbing” along with “a strong desire to have sex.” An initial flush occurs post injection, followed by nausea which is dose dependent. For most, effects generally do not take place until a couple hours post injection, peaking around the four hour mark. Men said PT-141 made them feel “younger and more energetic” as well as sexually interested and aroused. “You’re ready to take your pants off and go,” said user “a product that makes you not only able to but eager to.”

Window of Opportunity: Bremelanotide, injected (subcutaneously), has a unique window of opportunity lasting six to 72 hours. In lab trials female rats exposed to PT-141 began “flirting” with male rats for sex. Postures and movements left no doubt in the male rats minds that they were in the mood. The human PT-141 date is one where the dosage precedes the activity by at least a couple hours. When the stars align, hours after the injection, …this is your window of opportunity, enjoy.
Bremelanotide PT141 Peptide: Bremelanotide sold online comes in 10mg vials. As a lifestyle melanocortin research peptide, the 10mg product is a lot to consume and may offer up to 20+ doses when dosing PT-141 conservatively. Quality PT141 reconstituted with bacteriostatic water remains potent and preserved for months.

Mixing PT-141: Bacteriostatic water is used for reconstitution.

Example- 1ml(cc) bacteriostatic water per 10mg PT-141 vial equates to a 1mg dose approximately each 10 units on a U100 insulin syringe.
Example- 1ml(cc) bacteriostatic water per 2mg PT-141 vial equates to a 1mg dose approximately every 50 units on a U100 insulin syringe.

Recommended strategy for mixing and dosing would be to reconstitute with the volume that yields a .1ml injection.

Example- 1ml(cc) bacteriostatic water per 10mg PT-141 vial equates to a 1mg dose approximately each 10 units on a U100 insulin syringe.
Example- .2ml(cc) bacteriostatic water per 2mg PT-141 vial equates to a 1mg dose approximately every 10 units on a U100 insulin syringe.

PT141 Dosing:

Read as much as possible to gain clarity and align expectations. Gradually dosing melanotan peptides increases likelihood for success without sides (desensitization occurs rapidly). Test PT-141 dosage of .25-.5mg on first attempt is recommended. 1mg, give or take a quarter, is the efficacious dose yielding most positive reports.
 

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Growth Hormone Secretagogues

In the 1980's three classes of compounds where studied to determine their effect on growth hormone release. These three compounds were:

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (natural hormone)
Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (synthetic molecules often termed "GH-Secretagogues")
removed by basskiller due to the nature of the item in question -highly illegal and addictive
Individually each class of compound when administered in laboratory rats was found to induce growth hormone release. However when they were all combined growth hormone release dramatically increased.

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) + Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide (GHRP) was found to induce a large synergistic secretion of growth hormone (GH).


When all three classes of compounds were examined it was discovered that each compound released GH by a mechanism different and distinct from that of the others. Furthermore it was found that these three modes of action accomplished growth hormone release in ways complementing and not interfering with each other.


Fortunately we are left with two tools with which we can maximize a synergistic release of growth hormone. These tools have no toxicity and promote desirable alterations in normal physiology.

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) in the form of its long-lasting analog (CJC-1295) was discussed in the previous article. It is therefore left to this article to discuss Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) and the human studies that demonstrate synergy between these two compounds (GHRP + GHRH).



Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) - A Quick Look

What are they?

Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic forms of the natural hormone Ghrelin. These simple short-chained amino acid peptide strings possess most of the positive characteristics of Ghrelin (such as effecting GH secretion) and few of the negative properties (such as Ghrelin's lipogenic behavior (i.e. conversion of glucose to fatty acids)).

GHRPs belong to a broader class of compounds all of which share the common trait of being able to bind to the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R) and effect GH release. These compounds include the synthetic peptides (GHRP-6, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, Hexarelin, Ipamorelin) and smaller synthetic non-peptide molecular compounds such as MK-0677 as well as the natural ligand Ghrelin. This broad class which includes all of the above but not Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is termed Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs).

These Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHSs) exert their effect on increasing GH output in multiple ways.

First they INDIRECTLY increase growth hormone (GH) secretion by inducing Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) release from the hypothalamus in the brain. GHRH once released makes its way to the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Receptors (GHRH-R) in cells within the pituitary (a gland just below the brain) where it binds and exerts its direct influence in signaling GH release.

Second these GHS also make there way to those same pituitary cells where they themselves bind to a Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R) and exert a DIRECT influence in signaling GH release. This signaling uses a different mode of action distinct from that of GHRH. As a consequence both bound GHRH & bound GHS can exert their positive influence concurrently resulting in synergistic growth hormone (GH) release.

Third they INDIRECTLY increase GH secretion by reducing release of Somatostatin (the GH inhibiting hormone) from the hypothalamus and DIRECTLY by reducing the magnitude of Somatostatin's inhibiting action once it binds to its receptor on the pituitary cells.

In essence Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS) turn up the positive signal to release GHRH, turn down the negative signal to release the inhibiting hormone Somatostatin, speak directly to the growth hormone releasing pituitary cells themselves to encourage them to release GH and speak directly to the growth hormone releasing pituitary cells themselves to encourage them to ignore Somatostatin's message to stop releasing GH.




Oral GHS

Based on the effectiveness of GHRPs smaller non-peptide molecules were created in an effort to mimic the GH releasing effects of GHRPs with the desire to develop a compound with high oral bioavailability. As a result MK-0677 was eventually created as a non-peptide compound with sustained GH release and higher oral bioavailability. Unfortunately desensitization was found to occur fairly rapidly. In addition the dose for the orally administered MK-0677 is measured in several milligrams while the effective dose for the injectable GHRPs is measured in micrograms making GHRPs more cost effective. Research is ongoing on non-peptide GHSs, particularly with Ipamorelin derivatives so perhaps an oral GHS devoid of desensitization will eventually be developed.

My own thought is that these molecular compounds appear to be small enough to be used in a transdermal formula. Also it would be nice to have these orally/transdermally active compounds available to use on a limited basis perhaps making usage when traveling convenient.



Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides - A Longer Look

What are they?

In 1980 the first highly potent GH-Releasing peptide was developed and named GHRP-6. This peptide was found to illicit a strong GH release response and so became the first member of a class of growth hormone releasing peptides more broadly called GH secretagogues. Structurally GHRP-6 is composed of the amino acids L-Histidine, D-Tryptophan, L-Alanine, L-Tryptophan, D-Phenylalanine and L-Lysine. The "L" form of an amino acid is the naturally occurring form and often in the nomenclature the "L" is dropped. The "D" form does not occur in nature and is the isomeric form (i.e. mirror image) of the naturally occurring "L" form.

GHRP-6 is composed of both natural and isomeric forms of those aforementioned six amino acids. Its structure is represented as:

His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2

Investigators subsequently modified the structure of GHRP-6 and identified more potent peptides. For example, activity was enhanced by replacing D-Trp with D-2-(2-napthyl)alanine and His with D-Alanine to create GHRP-2 whose structure is represented as:

D-Ala-D-2 Nal-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2

In 1982, after a long search the natural hormone "Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone" (GHRH) was finally isolated and identified. As a result the interest in Growth Hormone Secretagogues (at that point limited to the three peptides) faded. Eventually researchers discovered that those GH-Releasing Peptides (specifically GHRP-6 & GHRP-2) followed a mode of action which bound them to and was mediated through receptors different from those for GHRH. In addition researches discovered that these GH-Releasing Peptides acted synergistically with the natural hormone Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) in vivo (in both laboratory animals & humans) to produce large releases of Growth Hormone.

Taken together these two discoveries made it clear that GHRPs were not simply surrogates of GHRH. GHRP-6 and its analogues were artificial activators of a separate newly discovered receptor termed the "Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor" (GHS-R). Eventually the natural hormone Ghrelin was discovered as the endogenous ligand that binds to the GHS-R. Together the natural hormone Ghrelin, and all the synthetic compounds (both peptides & smaller molecules) such as GHRP-6 were termed "Growth Hormone Secretagogues" (GHSs).

This nomenclature continues in the literature to this day however increasingly new terminology is used. For instance the "Ghrelin Receptor" is synonymous with "GHS-R" and "Ghrelin mimetics" are synonymous with all the synthetic compounds that are capable of binding to the GHS-R. This paper uses the more established nomenclature throughout.



Pituitary Actions of GHSs

All GHSs act directly on the pituitary. They do so by binding to and activating their specific receptor (GHS-R). Once this occurs GH secretion is commanded to rise. GHRH does the same thing. It acts directly on the pituitary and binds to and activates its specific receptor (GHRH-R). Once this occurs GH secretion is commanded to rise.

However GHSs and GHRH operate through a different "mode of action" or intracellular signaling system within the cell that eventually activates GH secretion. These modes of action are contrasted as follows.

GHRH when it binds to its receptor (GHRH-R) on the cellular membrane of a somatotrope cell activates the cAMP–PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) pathway (in essence a secondary messenger), and by a poorly understood mechanism causes a persistent rise in intracellular Calcium (Ca2+) ions by opening Ca2+ channels (simply ports on the cell membrane that open and close to either permit or deny entry) on the cellular membrane and letting into the cell Ca2+ from the outside. The rise in calcium concentration within the cell signals in conjunction with other signaling processes the instruction to the somatotrope cell to release Growth Hormone.

It should be noted that Somatostatin (the GH inhibiting hormone) once bound to its receptor brings about a decrease in GH in part by inhibiting cAMP formation. As a consequence of limiting this messenger the signaling cascade is weakened resulting in less Calcium (Ca2+) ions entering the cell and thus inhibition of GH release.

GHSs however do not rely on cAMP as a messenger. GHSs once bound to their respective receptor initiate a process that leads to an inhibition of Potassium (K+) ion channels. This action results in a sustained depolarization of the cellular membrane. The result is identical to that affected by GHRH, namely the Calcium ion level rises via voltage-activated channels leading to the signal to secrete GH. But the mode of action relies on the use of depolarization of the cellular membrane and inhibiting Potassium ion channels rather then GHRH's cAMP-mediated opening of Calcium ion channels.

In addition to allowing Ca2+ into the cell, GHSs may also cause a rise in intracellular Ca2+ by redistribution from internal stores of Ca2+ within the cell. This process is mediated by the generation of inositol trisphosphate whose main functions are to mobilize Ca2+ from storage organelles and to regulate cell proliferation.

This brief description is an over simplification. The important point is that GHRH and GHS act through their own receptors and distinct intermediate pathways.

This is not the only difference. Although the image herein depicts one pituitary somatotrope with both types of receptors activated (GHRH-R & GHS-R) this may not give a completely accurate picture. GHRH and GHS appear to act on different somatotrope subpopulations. GHRP has been shown to increase the number of somatotropes releasing GH, without altering the amount of hormone released by each individual cell. On the other hand, GHRH stimulates both the number of cells secreting GH and the amount of GH secreted per cell.

From these limited discoveries we can begin to understand how GHRH and GHSs compliment each other's GH releasing actions rather then duplicate one another.

It should be noted that Somatostatin (the GH inhibiting hormone) has been shown primarily to decrease the number of cells secreting GH without affecting the amount of GH secreted per cell.

To sum up in very general terms GHS increases, while Somatostatin decreases, the number of active GH secreting somatotropes, probably because these two factors act by depolarizing and hyperpolarizing cells, respectively (i.e. GHSs turns the cell into a Calcium ion sponge & Somatostatin turns the cell into a squeegee, squeezing out and repelling Calcium ions).

On the other hand GHRH does both, but acts primarily by stimulating the amount of secreted GH within the active somatotropes.





Hypothalamic Actions of GHS

In vitro (in a laboratory dish) the amount of GH release from GHRH and GHSs is additive. GHSs cause a rise of 2...GHRH causes a rise of 1...put them together and the GH rise is merely the sum 3.

But something different happens when you put these two compounds into living breathing mammals. In vivo (in body) the GH rise that occurs from the combination of GHRH and GHSs is more then the sum of their individual contributions. There is substantial synergy such that 1 + 2 = 6.

This occurs as a result of GHSs actions within the Hypothalamus (region of the brain) rather then its direct pituitary actions. There are GHS receptors (GHS-R) in the hypothalamus; perhaps even subtype receptors. When GHSs bind to these receptors they behave like a hypothalamic neurohormone and as such exhibit a dual action.

They stimulate endogenous GHRH release and concurrently suppress endogenous Somatostatin release. How they do this is a complex process with much still unknown. Basically they incite electrical activation of arcuate neurons (within the hypothalamus). About seventy-five percent of the cells excited by GHRP-6 project outside the blood brain barrier (hypothalamus) into the median eminence (boundary between hypothalamus & the portal system which connects to the pituitary which lies just below the brain) and are neurosecretory involved in the regulation of pituitary function.

The activation of these neurons by GHRP-6 is extremely long lasting (longer than 1 hour) and reaches the peak rapidly (within 5 to 10 minutes). Non-peptide GHSs respond slower perhaps for the reason that they penetrate the blood brain barrier slower than GHRP-6.

GHRP-6s excitation of neuronal activity beyond those neurons that regulate GHRH & Somatostatin (i.e. the remaining 25%) may account for some of the impact GHRPs have on non-GH releasing activity.

The important point is to recognize that GHSs have an impact on GHRH release and Somatostatin suppression at the hypothalamus which appears to be responsible for the now well-recognized synergistic effect on GH release from concurrent administration of GHRH & GHRPs in vivo.

Furthermore it should now be firmly understood that GH release is regulated by the following trinity - GHRH, Somatostatin and GHSs.


GHS Potency (i.e. efficacy) & Dosing in Humans
When administered at clinical research dosages, all GHSs (both peptides and non-peptides) release significantly larger amounts of GH (i.e. are more efficacious) than GHRH. This is not to be confused with the term potency which takes into account the molecular weight of a compound and thus measures GH output on a "per mol" basis. By this measure GHRH is more potent.

However if the desire is to administer these compounds and effect GH release then the only relevant standard is absolute amount of GH release and in that regard GHSs release more GH than GHRH. The following standards determined through clinical study will specifically clarify this concept.

In humans the maximal i.v. dose for GHRH has been found to be 1 mcg per kg of bodyweight. That is a level that saturates the receptors and beyond which there is no further benefit, until that dosage has dissipated.

In humans the maximal i.v. dose for GHSs such as hexarelin has been found to be 2 to 3 mcg per kg of bodyweight. In normal humans (i.e. those without disease or clinical malady) GH release is increased as the GHS dose increases up to the aforementioned maximal dose. Even very small amounts have been shown to have positive effects.

Unlike GHRH, GHSs are resistant to well-known inhibitors of GH secretion. Studies demonstrate that hexarelin-mediated GH secretion is reduced but not blocked by a rise in circulating free fatty acids or by a glucose load, nor by an infusion of Somatostatin nor drugs that enhance hypothalamic Somatostatin secretion.

GHRH is influenced by metabolic and hormonal factors that consequently make GHRH a very unpredictable GH stimulator, with large variations between individuals and a diversity of peaking times.

In contrast GHSs are not greatly influenced by metabolic and hormonal factors, the absence of which makes GHSs a very predictable GH stimulator. GHSs are potent and efficacious, their actions synchronized and reproducible, with no non-responders.

GHSs have been repeatedly demonstrated in studies to be very strong GH releasers in healthy young males. In addition GHSs have been shown in studies to be very strong GH releasers in females at all stages of the menstrual cycle. This again is important to note because GHSs are not greatly affected by changes in various hormone levels, be they thyroid hormone, estrogen, etc.

There may be an age-related reduction in the GH-releasing capability of GHSs. The studies have not yet been able to come to a consensus. However, the synergistic effect of GHRH and GHS on GH secretion is not reduced as humans age throughout the entire lifespan. This holds true even for the very old (Those in their 90's).

There are no reported side-effects with GHS usage. However both the peptidyl and non-peptidyl compounds have been found to induce slight increases (still within what is deemed the normal range) in prolactin and in adrenocorticotrophin(ACTH)/cortisol, and in a few studies dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Low to moderate dose (1 mcg/kg) administration of GHRP-6 has been found to result in very large GH release with no significant effects on cortisol or prolactin. Of the peptides, Hexarelin appears to induce the highest level of these hormones (prolactin & cortisol). Ipamorelin a newer GHS has no effect on these hormones no matter what the dose.



Why you need both GHRH analog (CJC-1295) and GHRP

GHS Down Regulation

A single dose of a GHS in vivo brings about an immediate down-regulation of responsiveness to subsequent administration. This desensitization appears to abate and sensitivity fully restored within a few hours.

However continual infusion of large amounts of GHS brings about a substantial initial release of GH, followed, after several hours, by long-term down-regulation of GH secretion.

The only published comparison of the results of differing modes of GHS delivery (twice daily injections vs. continuous infusion) in vivo demonstrated a dramatic dissipation of anabolism following infusions of high-dose GHS. However a pronounced anabolic effect was maintained with the same dose of GHS administered by intermittent injection.




From the results of this study graphed out above it is evident that with GHSs the optimal dosing pattern is administration by injection with sufficient intervals between dosing so as to maintain sensitivity.

The effectiveness is greatly diminished, perhaps to the point of having no benefit if GHSs duration of action becomes prolonged and sustained. GHSs unlike GHRH are best used to amplify those very import GH pulses while GHRH is effective at raising the total level of GH.

If we understand desensitization than we will easily understand why the oral GHS, MK-0677 in recent studies failed to demonstrate a "maintained acceleration of statural growth in children with GH-deficiency". MK-0677 was developed to be a long lasting orally active analogue of GHRP-6. MK-0677 is to GHRP-6 what CJC-1295 is to GHRH (i.e. long-lasting).

The problem is that while long-lasting analogues of GHRH do not result in desensitization and pronounced down-regulation, long-lasting analogues of GHRP-6 do desensitize and consequently lose effectiveness.

CJC-1295 brings about persistent and chronically elevated levels of GH while GHRP-6 if injected a couple of times a day amplifies the very important GH pulses. The two compounds greatly compliment each other. In the previous article on GHRH & CJC-1295 we discussed the importance of pulsation which has been shown to be necessary for growth. The other important component of anabolism is chronic GH elevation.

Continuously elevated levels of GH increase IGF-I levels more than intermittent increases in GH. The intermittent nature of GH release brought on by GHSs' mode of action does create a rise in IGF-I levels but the anabolic effect may not be pronounced.

It has been repeatedly demonstrated and is now recognized that in children the growth response to injections of IGF-I is far less than the growth response to injections of GH. This is in accordance with most animal studies, which demonstrate that treatment with IGF-I does "not produce the full anabolic and growth-promoting effects of GH treatment".

Protocols that elevate GH while maintaining and amplifying the pulses seem to be effective at producing anabolism. The combination of CJC-1295 and GHRP-6 do just that.





GHRH (and analogs) + GHSs = a lot of synergistic growth hormone release

There is not a lot of deviation in the published studies on the effect of these peptides and the saturation dose needed to bring about the effect in normal people (who often act as a control group).

We need only to examine the results of the normal test subjects from three oft-cited studies that established the relevant protocol.

In the first study "Inhibition of growth hormone release after the combined administration of GHRH and GHRP-6 in patients with Cushing's syndrome", Alfonso Leal-Cerro..., Clinical Endocrinology 1994, 41 (5) , 649–654, three different peptide/peptide combinations were used.

GHRH was administered alone at 100mcg. This resulted in area under the curve (AUC) measured for 120 minutes of GH secretion of 1420 * 330.

GHRP-6 was administered alone at 100mcg. This resulted in area under the curve (AUC) measured for 120 minutes of GH secretion of 2278 * 290.

GHRH plus GHRP-6 was administered together at 100mcg each. This resulted in area under the curve (AUC) measured for 120 minutes of GH secretion of 7332 * 592.

As a single dose these results show that GHRP-6 is about twice as effective as GHRH.

The synergy between GHRH & GHRP-6 is clearly evident as co-administration resulted in twice the benefit of the additive values of single doses of the two peptides.

The second study is the one that established the saturation dose for these peptides often used in other studies. "Growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide stimulates GH release in normal men and acts synergistically with GH-releasing hormone ", CY Bowers..., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Apr 1990; 70: 975-982.

In that study GHRH at a dose of 1.0 microgram/kg was administered alone and then together with various doses of GHRP-6 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 microgram/kg). They found that the submaximal dosages of 0.1 and 0.3 microgram/kg GHRP-6 plus 1 microgram/kg GHRH did have the effect of stimulating GH release synergistically.

However the larger dose of 1 mcg/kg of GHRP-6 was found to be the saturation dose when used in combination w/ 1 mcg/kg of GHRH.

It is also noteworthy that serum prolactin and cortisol levels rose about 2-fold above base levels only at the 1 microgram/kg dose of GHRP-6 and not at the submaximal dosages.

The final study, "Preserved Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion in Aged and Very Old Subjects after Testing with the Combined Stimulus GH-Releasing Hormone plus GH-Releasing Hexapeptide-6", Micic D..., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2569-72 is fascinating for several reasons.

By reference to citation it is noted that "GHRH plus GHRP-6 (both at saturating dose) is nowadays considered the most potent stimulus of GH secretion in man being able to restore the GH secretion in states associated with chronic blockade of somatotroph activity (as in obesity)...it elicits a near-normal GH discharge in obesity, in patients with hypothyroidism and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus."

This particular study examined the effects of combined administration of GHRH, immediately followed by GHRP-6 in a group of very old subjects (age higher than 75 yr), as compared with both normal adults (less than 40 yr) and aged subjects (age 46–65 yr). The dosing levels used were 90mcg of GHRH followed by 1mcg/kg of GHRP-6.

All the subjects had a positive GH secretory response to the combined administration with no differences observed between men and women. However the group comprising the very old had the highest level of GH release followed by the group comprising the aged subjects with the "less than 40 yr group" experiencing a substantial rise but not as high as the other two groups.

The study concluded that the lack of side-effects & safety of the protocol and the discovered lack of age-related decline in the "GHRH-GHRP-6-mediated GH release opens the possibility of using it as a therapeutical tool to revert some deleterious manifestations of aging in man."




In CONCLUSION, Growth Hormone (GH) is regulated by a trinity composed of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH), Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS) and Somatostatin. GHRH and GHSs individually have a positive impact on GH secretion. These two compounds operate through distinct modes of action which complement each other and when administered together result in synergistic GH secretion.

Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides (GHRPs), a subclass of GHSs are effective across all age groups in amplifying GH pulses. Pulsation is a necessary component of growth generation in mammals. GHRH when co-administered with GHRPs has the effect of further increasing the amplitude and "area under the curve" of a GH pulse. The result is a GH pulse many multiples more effective then that achieved by an unaided GH pulse.

In addition to pulsation, overall growth is better accomplished when total levels of GH are elevated without hindering pulsation. Elevated GH levels appear to be a necessary component of growth generation as well. One of the reasons this is so appears to be that chronically elevated GH levels result in more pronounced sustained levels of IGF-1 then that achieved through intermittent GH elevations.

Persistent levels of GHRH do not result in desensitization. Elevated levels of GHRH result in sustained GH release. A long-lasting version of GHRH, CJC-1295 has demonstrated the ability to sustain elevated GH levels in humans.

GHRP-6 is perhaps the most well studied of all GHSs. In physiological doses there are virtually no side effects. It has been demonstrated to be effective for all age groups.




Combined administration of CJC-1295 and GHRP-6 is a very effective, well studied method of increasing the total amount of GH secreted within the body. By adjusting the dosing of these compounds and accounting for such factors as age one may choose to achieve a "youthful" restoration, an above normal elevation or a substantially above normal elevation of both GH levels and pulsatile release.

References:


1. Bowers CY, Momany F, Reynolds GA. In vitro and in vivo activity of a small synthetic peptide with potent GH releasing activity. 64th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, San Francisco, 1982, p. 205

2. Bowers CY, Momany F, Reynolds GA, Sartor O. Multiple receptors mediate GH release. 7th International Congress of Endocrinology, Quebec, Canada, 1984, p. 464.

3. Badger RM, Millard WJ, McCormick GF, Bowers CY, Martin JB. The effects of growth hormone (GH) releasing peptides on GH secretion in perifused pituitary cells of adult male rats. Endocrinology 1984;115:1432–1438.

4. McCormick GF, Millard WJ, Badger TM, Bowers CY, Martin JB. Dose-response characteristics of various peptides with growth hormone-releasing activity in the unanesthetized male rat. Endocrinology 1985;117:97–105.

5. Sartor O, Bowers CY, Chang D. Parallel studies of His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2 and hpGRF-44NH2 in rat primary pituitary cell monolayer culture. Endocrinology 1985;116:952–957.

6. Sartor O, Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Momany F. Variables determining the GH response of His-D-Try- Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GH-RP-6) in the rat. Endocrinology 1985;117:1441–1447.

7. Bowers CY, Sartor O, Reynolds GA, Chang D, Momany F. Evidence that GRF and GRP, His-DTrp-Ala- Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2, act on different pituitary receptors to release GH. 67th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Baltimore, MD, 1985, p. 38.

8. Bowers CY, Sartor O, Reynolds GA, Chang D. Studies in subhuman primates with growth hormone releasing peptides. 68th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Anaheim, CA, 1986, p. 146.

9. Reynolds GA, Bowers CY. In vitro studies with GH releasing peptides. 69th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Indianapolis, 1987, p. 49.

10. Reynolds GA, Momany GA, Bowers CY. Synthetic tetrapeptides that release GH synergistically in combination with GHRP and GHRH. 73rd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Washington, D.C., 1991, p, 422.

11. Bowers CY, Sartor AO, Reynolds GA, Badger TM. On the actions of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide, GHRP-6. Endocrinology 1991;128:2027–2035.

12. Franco Camanni, Ezio Ghigo, and Emanuela Arvat, Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides and Their Analogs. Frontiers In Neuroendocrinology 19, 47–72 (1998) ARTICLE NO. FN970158

13 Bowers, C.Y. (1996) Xenobiotic growth hormone secretagogues: growth hormone releasing peptides. In Growth Hormone Secretagogues (Bercu, B.B. and Walker, R.F., eds), pp 9–28, Springer-Verlag

14 Bercu, B.B., Yang, S-W., Masuda, R. and Walker, R.F. (1992) Role of selected endogenous peptides in growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP) activity: analysis of GHRH, TRH and GnRH. Endocrinology 130, 2579–2586

15 Chen, C., Wu, D. and Clarke, I.J. (1996) Signal transduction systems employed by synthetic GH-releasing peptides in somatotrophs. J. Endocrinol. 148, 381–386

16 Frohman, L.A., Downs, T.R. and Chomczynski, P. (1992) Regulation of growth hormone secretion. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 13, 344–405

17 Goth, M.I., Lyons, C.E., Canny, B.J. and Thorner, M.O. (1992) Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide and GH-releasing hormone stimulate GH release through distinct pituitary receptors. Endocrinology 130, 939–944

18. Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Chang D, Hong A, Chang K, Momany F. A study on the regulation of GH release from the pituitary of rats, in vitro. Endocrinology 1981;108(3):1070–1079.

19. Bowers, C.Y., Reynolds, D.G., Durham, D., Barrera, C.M., Pezzoli, S.S. and Thorner, M.O. (1990) Growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide stimulates GH release in normal men and acts synergistically with GH-releasing hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70, 975–982

20. Penalva, A., Carballo, A., Pombo, M., Casanueva, F.F. and Dieguez, C. (1993) Effect of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH), atropine, pyridostigmine or hypoglycemia on GHRP- 6-induced GH secretion in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76, 168–171

21. Penalva, A., Pombo, M., Carballo, A., Barreiro, J., Casanueva, F.F. and Dieguez, C. (1993) Influence of sex, age and adrenergic pathways on the growthhormone response to GHRP-6. Clin. Endocrinol. 38, 87–91

22 Micic, D., Popovic, V., Kendereski, A., Peino, R., Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F.F. (1996) The sequential administration of growth hormone-releasing hormone followed 120 minutes later by hexarelin, as an effective test to assess the pituitary GH reserve in man. Clin. Endocrinol. 45, 543–551

23. Ghigo, E. et al. (1994) Growth hormone releasing activity of hexarelin, a new synthetic hexapeptide, after intravenous, subcutaneous, and oral administration in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78, 693–698

24. Peino, R., Cordido, F., Peñalva, A., Alvarez, C.V., Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F.F. (1996) Acipimox-mediated plasma free fatty acid depression per se stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in normal subjects and potentiates the response to other GH-releasing stimuli. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 909–913

25. Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Muccioli, G. and Camanni, F. (1997) Growth hormone releasing peptides. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 136, 445–460

26. Hartman, M.L., Farello, G., Pezzoli, S.S. and Thorner, M.O. (1992) Oral administration of growth hormone (GH)- releasing peptide administration stimulates GH secretion in normal men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 74, 1378–1384

27. Gertz, B.J. et al. (1993) Growth hormone response in man to L-692,429, a novel nonpeptide mimic of growth hormonereleasing peptide-6. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77, 1393–1397

28. Micic, D., Popovic, V., Kendereski, A., Macut, D., Casanueva, F.F. and Dieguez, C. (1995) Growth hormone secretion after the administration of GHRP-6, or GHRP-6 plus GHRH does not decline in late adulthood. Clin. Endocrinol. 42, 191–194

29. Micic, D., Popovic, V., Doknic, M., Macut, D., Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F.F. (1998) Preserved growth hormone (GH) secretion in aged and very old subjects after testing with the combined stimulus GH-releasing hormone plus GH-releasing hexapeptide-6. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 2569–2572

30. Massoud, A.F., Hindmarsh, P.C. and Brook, D.G.D. (1996) Hexarelin-induced growth hormone, cortisol, and prolactin release: a dose-response study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 4338–4341

31. Raun, K. et al. (1998) Ipamorelin, the first selective growth hormone secretagogue. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 139, 552–561

32. Smith RG, Pong SS, Hickey Get al. Modulation of pulsatile GH release through a novel receptor in hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Rec Prog Horm Res 1996; 51: 261-286.

33. McDowell KS, Elias KA, Stanley MS et al Growth-hormone secretagogues - characterization, efficacy, and minimal bioactive conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 11165-11169.

34. Howard AD, Feighner SD, Cully DF et al. A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release. Science 1996; 273: 974-977.

35. Pong SS, Chaung LYE Dean DC, Nargund RP, Patchett AA, Smith RG. Identification of a new G-proteinqinked receptor for growth-hormone secretagogues. MoI Endocrinol 1996; 10: 57-61.

36. Clark RG, Robinson ICAE Up and down the growth hormone cascade. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 1996; 7: 65-80.

37. Yu H, Cassorla F, Tiulpakov A et al. A double blind placebocontrolled efficacy trial of an oral growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (MK-0677) in GH deficient (GHD) children. 80th Annual Meeting US Endocrine Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1998;
 
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Lots of good info here. Thanks for these
 

basskiller

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Basic guide to GHRP/GHRH Peptides

sorry for the absence.. my monitor took a dump on me and I was awaiting a new one ~ basskiller


The newest supplement to be used by Bodybuilders are Peptides that naturally release GH from the body, the problem is that many make it all to confusing much more than it needs to be so i thought it would be a good article to write to try and clear some of the confusion on the subject.
if you prefer the science and long boring words to describe things this article is not for you
icon_smile.gif
so here is a very basic guide, it does not contain any real detail to the science behind the need etc……

you need to look at 2 peptides:

GHRP – this group’s main types are GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Ipamorelin (there are others but these are the most common and effective)
GHRH – this groups main type is Mod GRF 1-29 (sometimes called CJC1295 without DAC)

What do they do:

They release and amplify a natural pulse of GH from your body
GHRP release a pulse of GH
GHRH amplify this pulse
Combining both peptides gives more than double the effect of either alone due to the synergy they have it would be foolish in my opinion to use either alone.

Which GHRP to choose:

GHRP-6 is sloppy in that it activates a wider array of effects beyond GH release. It causes intense hunger and gastic motility. It can have a mild effect on cortisol and prolactin. It is a first generation GHRP.
GHRP-2 is less sloppy with a more intense GH release, no gastric motility and less hunger effect. It can have an effect within the normal range on prolcatin and cortisol. It is a second generation peptide.
Ipamorelin is not sloppy at all. It does not release as much GH as GHRP-2 but it causes virtually no hunger or gastric motility and for the most part does not effect cortisol or prolactin. It is a third generation peptide
You would choose GHRP-2 unless you wanted GHRP-6 for the hunger effect or for the lower release profiles.
You would choose GHRP-2 normally as the most bang for the buck.
If you are very sensitive to perturbations in cortisol or prolactin you would choose the more expensive Ipamorelin.

What GHRH to use?

all CJC started off as Mod GRF the differences between these is half life this makes some useless for us to use.
CJC1293 is the shortest at 5minutes this is destroyed by the body before it can do anything
CJC1295 DAC is approx. several days this imitates the female GH pattern called Bleed this is not what you want at all.
CJC1295 w/o DAC is approx. 30min this is MOD GRF 1-29 and this is what should be used.
in my opinion w/o DAC is better as it acts in synergy with the GHRP which creates a pulse, the longer acting with DAC creates a constant bleed of GH so acts differently to the peptide(GHRP) you are using alongside it.

Reconstituting the peptides:

GHRP (apart from Ipamorelin which comes in 2mg vial refer to GHRH mixing) normally comes in 5mg vials.
5000mcg(5mg) per vial
Add 2ml bacteriostatic water in vial
4iu (2 small ticks) on a standard 100iu(1ml) insulin pin gives 100mcg
GHRH (Mod GRF, CJC)
GHRH should come in 2mg vials (due to lowered half life of peptide)
2000mcg(2mg) per vial
Add 2ml of BAC water to vial
Each 10iu on a standard 100iu(1ml) insulin pin will give 100mcg

Peptide Storage:

Store the powder in the freezer if unmixed but once mixed with Bac water store in a fridge for best results(life of product) although can be stored in a cool place away from sunlight.

Peptide Dosing:

saturation dose is 1mcg per kg so normal dose is 100mcg for each 3 -5 times a day (you can use higher but double the dose will not give double the results)

Common injection times:

Before meal 1
PWO
B4 Bed
Make sure to leave 2-3hrs between jabs, results depend on frequency not dose so jabbing 100mcg 3 x daily will give better results than 300mcg once per day

Decision Matrix for you:
Are you primarily trying to lose fat or gain muscle?

lose fat
If lose fat reserve more of the Mod GRF(1-29)/GHRP for the fatloss time period (i.e. fasted cardio; part of the day when calories are lower then the energy demand for the activity during that period; pre-weight workout IF that workout is designed to be a fatloss workout; or simply earlier in the day when there is more time to make use of liberated fatty acids)
Possible dosing scheme – Morning/Midday/PWO

gain muscle
If gain muscle reserve more of the Mod GRF(1-29)/GHRP for around the weight workout and in the period that follows.
Possible dosing schemes – Morning/Pre-WO/Bed; Morning/PWO/Bed; Pre-WO/Bed/Middle of night; Morning/PWO/Middle of night; PWO/Morning/Midday

Injection:

Can be injected IM or SubQ

Food:

don’t eat Carbs or fats approx. 1hr before the jab or 15-20 min after the Jab as this blunts the GH pulse, Protein is fine.
Additions (these are not required for good results and should be used by the advanced BB):
Adding 2-3iu of GH 15-20 minutes after peptides will give a bigger overall pulse of GH (natural + synthetic)
Adding Insulin to peptides will give you the same type of results as adding it to GH

To Summarize:

What do I do?
Step one: You NEVER know when Somatostatin is going to act, Again since you don’t know if Somatostatin is around you are rolling the dice by injecting GHRH. There will be zero GH release if Somatostatin is around and only some if Somatostatin is just starting up or just diminishing. Only if you are lucky to inject when Somatostatin is gone will there be decent GH release. To overcome this, very large amounts say 2mg (2000mcg) are sometimes used. Injecting GHRH alone is not very effective.
Step two: Choose a GHRP because it can always cause GH release on its own and make the environment safe for GHRH.
Step three: Choose a GHRH to add to the GHRP because it will synergistic amplify the GH pulse.
Step four: Choose a dosing schedule. If once a day do it pre-bed. If twice a day then do it pre-bed and post workout (PWO). If three times a day do it pre-bed, PWO and in the morning.
How many times can I dose before I lose pulsation? Six (6) a day every 3 hours, How few times can I do it for some better sleep, small anti-aging effect? Just pre-bed.
Step five: Assess tolerance by dosing just once w/ a GHRP pre-bed at half of saturation dose. Then if that goes well go to full saturation dose. If that goes well add a 2nd dosing, If that is fine add a third dosing.
Step six: Decide on a dose. Saturation dose is defined as either 100mcg or 1mcg/kg of bodyweight in the studies. For the most part it is treated as 100mcg. That is the same for women and men. You will get added but diminishing benefit by dosing 200mcg, 300mcg perhaps 400mcg.

author ????
 

basskiller

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Melanotan 2 – An in depth study

Melanotan 2 – An in depth study

The peptide Melanotan II carries a molecular mass of 1024.180 and a molecular formula of C50H69N15O9. It is sometimes referred to by the following names:
Melanotan 2
MT-2.

However, this particular peptide is not to be confused with the peptide Melanotan I, which has been shown to exhibit similar tendencies in regards to its overall functionality and operational mechanics.

Melanotan II at a Glance

According to scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects, the impetus of Melanotan 2’s overall functionality and mechanics can be tied to the pituitary gland. This pea-sized gland located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain essentially acts as the command center for the endocrine system, as it is chiefly charged with the regulation and control of several system-related functions including those related to growth, metabolism, thyroid gland function, and temperature regulation.

Melanotan II’s relationship to the pituitary gland can be drilled down to a hormonal level; specifically, to hormones secreted by the pituitary gland known as melanocortins. In essence, these particular hormones are responsible for the regulation and control of hair and skin pigmentation in an animal test subject. They achieve this measure of control by expressing melanin.

The secretion of melanin is triggered by an animal test subject’s exposure to ultraviolet, or UV, rays. When the secretions are expressed, they are manifested upon the surface of the skin. This process in which this occurs is known as melanogenesis. The secretion acts as a natural means of protection against ultraviolet rays. This component, by extension, acts as a protective measure against a hot of various skin afflictions and ailments that result from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays. These rays include various forms of skin cancers.

The primary issue with melanogenesis is the fact that the melanocortins that trigger this process has a rapid half-life that only lasts several minutes. Naturally, this means that the secretion’s overall effectiveness as a measure of protection against ultraviolet rays is very limited. However, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has indicated that the presence of Melanotan II can extend the half-life of melanocortins, therefore making their ability to secrete melanin and specifically expand its overall protective measures against ultraviolet rays significantly more effective. Furthermore, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Melanotan II can cajole the effects of melanogenesis without the presence of UV rays, therefore removing the potential pathogenic danger that is associated with the triggering of the process. That being said, it should be noted that scientific studies based on animal test subjects has determined that Melanotan II’s overall functionality is higher when the presence of UV rays are introduced.

Benefits of Melanotan II’s Processes

The main focus of scientific study based on animal test subjects regarding Melanotan II’s overall functionality is in relation to its ability to possibly lessen the risk of most types of skin cancer. Because it has been shown to promote melanogenesis even during times when UV rays are not present, these studies have stated that this response that would normally be triggered by the pathogen that could cause some skin cancers would give the animal test subject an increased measure of protection from the cancer causing process. With that being said, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has concluded that Melanotan II’s effectiveness is rendered moot ageist the deadliest form of skin cancer, malignant melanoma. The reason for this is because unlike other skin cancers that have been linked to the presence of UV rays, most instances of malignant melanoma have been associated with indirect DNA damage.

In addition to determining links to stave off skin cancers, other scientific study on animal test subjects has been focused on determining hypothetical links between the peptide and libido, as well as links between the peptide and the process of lipolysis; that is, the process in which body fat is broken down.

Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanotan_II
 
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What are peptides

World of the Body: peptides
peptides are short chains of amino acids linked together. If there are only two amino acids then the peptide is a dipeptide. Similarly there are tripeptides, tetrapeptides, and so on. If the number of amino acids in the chain reaches around ten or so, such substances are called polypeptides, while large polypeptides are called proteins. There is no particular agreed size at which a large polypeptide becomes a small protein, but generally polypeptides have molecular weights of a few thousand, while proteins have molecular weights of tens of thousands. Depending on which amino acids are involved, between seven and ten amino acids will add about 1000 to the molecular weight.
Protein molecules in the diet are digested by enzymes (which are themselves specialized proteins), that break them down into smaller and smaller lengths, the breakage occurring at the peptide bonds. peptides and amino acids are thus the final cleavage products of protein digestion. Amino acids are the main protein breakdown product absorbed from the gut, but some di- and tri-peptides are also absorbed, there being specific carrier systems in the cells lining the small intestine to transport these small peptides from the lumen to the blood.
The dipeptide carnosine, formed from the amino acids alanine and histidine, was identified in muscle a century ago, but only recently has research revealed its properties and the likely variety and significance of its functions. It is known to be present also in the brain, where it may act as a neurotransmitter. In muscle it is likely to be important in making the contractile filaments more sensitive to calcium ions and in controlling the internal acidity of these fibres. It has been suggested that it may also be a scavenger of free radicals. Its strong binding with zinc may be important in co-absorption from the gut of this essential trace element; and physiologically significant interactions between carnosine, zinc, and histamine are being discovered.
The tripeptide glutathione (glutamic acid-cysteine-glycine) is an important co-factor for many enzymes, increasing their activity.

Polypeptide hormones

Polypeptides control or trigger a great many bodily functions, acting close to or at a distance from the site at which they are produced and released. The table below gives a few examples, giving the site of production, the number of amino acids, and an indication of the functions that the polypeptides promote.


Amino acids Origin Action
Hormones
Oxytocin 9 Posterior pituitary Uterine contraction and milk ejection
Vasopressin 9 Posterior pituitary Antidiuretic (water-retaining) action in kidneys
Glucagon 29 Endocrine pancreas Increases blood sugar
ACTH 39 Anterior pituitary Stimulates release of cortisol from adrenal glands
Gastrin 17 Stomach lining Stimulates gastric acid secretion
Angiotensin 8 From precursor in Regulation of body fluid volume and the blood circulation

Local agents
Bradykinin 9 In tissues Dilates blood vessels, stimulates secretions
Endothelin 21 Endothelium Constricts blood vessels

Neuropeptides/hormones
CRF 41
Hypothalamus and Promotes release of pituitary and other many other brain hormones, and stimulates sympathetic regions nervous activity
Substance P 11 Nervous system, gut, Vasodilator; neurotransmitter involved in inflamed tissue pain sensation
CCK 33 Duodenal lining; As hormone, stimulates gall bladder peripheral nerves and contraction and pancreatic secretion; many brain regions neurotransmitter in brain

Proteins usually fold to form particular three-dimensional shapes (which determine their actions), but polypeptides are not so structurally constrained, so in solution they can adopt many conformations. For example, oxytocin and vasopressin have about a thousand different conformations in solution, all in dynamic equilibrium one with another. How is it therefore that they specifically attach to their receptors, with the requirements for specific shape and charge distribution? The answer is that some part of the polypeptide attaches to the receptor, while adjacent parts turn and rotate until the correct shape is reached. Thus the polypeptides use a ‘zipper’ mechanism to attach to membrane receptors.

Neuropeptides

There are many different peptides in neurons, released along with other neurotransmitters. Some peptides that were originally identified as hormones, thought to be produced at one particular site and to act at certain ‘target’ sites, have more recently been found to be made elsewhere also, and to have other functions. The body utilizes the same peptide for different purposes. This is true, for example, of cholecystokinin (CCK), a 33-amino-acid polypeptide that was known for many decades as a hormone that originated in the duodenum and caused emptying of the gall bladder. Since the 1980s it has been revealed to be a modulator of neural activity, produced by many nerve cells, widespread in the nervous system. Likewise, corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), with 41 amino acids, was originally known to be made and released by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus, passing to the pituitary gland and there stimulating the secretion of ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone). But it too has been found to be a neuromodulator produced by neurons in many parts of the brain.
A family of peptides called opioid peptides or endorphins, found in the brain and elsewhere in the body, are responsible for the modulation of pain sensation. One group of these, the pentapeptide enkephalins, are released as neurotransmitters by nerve cells in certain parts of the brain and spinal cord. They bind to opiate receptors (the membrane receptors on which opiate drugs act) on other nerve cells in the pathways that mediate pain, hence acting as ‘endogenous’ (internally generated) analgesics
 

l69lou

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Thankyou so much my brother ! This is what I have been looking for , one place where I can find this info about this stuff . Great work Basskiller !!!
 

biker66

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Thanks BK, I have been wanting a cheaper rout to use outside of GH, was going to use IGF and 1295 with DAC but after reading your info will go another rout...What do you suggest from personal experience brother?? I have used PT-141 and it is good just left me wit ha hell of a headache.... With that said I have some reading to do, Thanks again BK.
 
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