Ketamine and depression cure??

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    Ketamine and depression cure??

    Getting the Inside Dope on Ketamine’s Mysterious Ability to Rapidly Relieve Depression

    The notorious party drug may act as an antidepressant by blocking neural bursts in a little-understood brain region that may drive depression.


    Photo by bunditinay / Getty Images.



    Ketamine has been called the biggest thing to happen to psychiatry in 50 years, due to its uniquely rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. It improves symptoms in as little as 30 minutes, compared with weeks or even months for existing antidepressants, and is effective even for the roughly one third of patients with so-called treatment-resistant depression.
    Although there are multiple theories, researchers do not quite know how ketamine combats depression. Now, research has uncovered a mechanism that may, in part, explain ketamine's antidepressant properties. Two 2018 studies published in Nature describe a distinctive pattern of neural activity that may drive depression in a region called the lateral habenula (LHb); ketamine, in turn, blocks this activity in depression-prone rats.
    Originally licensed as an anesthetic in 1970, ketamine has since gained fame as a party drug for causing out-of-body experiences, hallucinations and other psychosislike effects. Its antidepressant properties in humans were discovered almost 20 years ago. Ketamine does not directly influence the same chemical messengers as standard antidepressants such as serotonin, but rather works via interaction with another chemical, glutamate—not usually associated with mood but rather with brain plasticity. One prominent idea about how it alleviates depression is by promoting the growth of new neural connections. “We provide a new angle for people to think about how this drug works,” says neuroscientist Hailan Hu of Zhejiang University in China, leader of the team that conducted both studies. If she is right, her group may have identified multiple new lines of attack for treating a condition the World Health Organization calls the leading cause of disability worldwide.
    Both new studies probe the workings of the LHb, a small, central brain region that acts like the dark twin of the brain's reward centers by processing unexpectedly unpleasant events. For example, if an animal has been trained to expect food when reaching the end of a maze and the reward is not there, the activates, signaling a discrepancy between expectation and outcome. This has led to the LHb being dubbed the key part of a “disappointment circuit.” If the LHb is overactive, it could suppress rewards from normally pleasurable activities—a symptom known as anhedonia—leading to long-term apathy and hopelessness. Studies in animals suggest hyperactivity in the LHb contributes to depression, but the details have been murky.
    The first study, led by neuroscientist Yan Yang, also at Zhejiang, discovered a distinctive pattern of rapid bursts in the LHb of rats that display depressionlike behaviors. More usual neural activity, where neurons fire at spaced intervals, was not related to depression, suggesting it is burst activity, rather than increased LHb activity per se, that is related to depression. Exactly why bursts are important is not clear, but the researchers think they may enhance communication with other regions. “It's like a machine-gun shooting versus single shooting, so it carries information more efficiently to downstream brain areas,” Hu says. The team also provoked LHb neurons into burst firing using optogenetics, a technology that allows neurons to be activated with light. The results showed increased depressive behaviors, indicating the bursts actually cause depression rather than just occur alongside it.
    The researchers stumbled on ketamine after they injected a drug that blocks NMDA receptors (for glutamate that, when activated, allow calcium to flood inside cells, causing them to fire) in the LHbs of depression-prone rats and saw strong antidepressant effects. Ketamine also blocks NMDA receptors, so the team repeated this with ketamine and again alleviated depression, within one hour. “We show that infusion of ketamine into just one brain region is sufficient to cause rapid antidepressant effects,” Hu says. Studies of brain tissue samples showed that whereas ketamine silenced burst firing within minutes, the standard antidepressant fluoxetine hydrochloride, commonly known as Prozac, had no such effect at these timescales.
    The second study, led by Zhejiang neuroscientist Yihui Cui, looked at what might cause burst firing in depression. The researchers found a protein, Kir4.1, was present at higher levels in depressive rats. Kir4.1 is found in cells called astrocytes, which influence neuronal activity. The team showed this protein promotes burst firing in LHb neurons. Raising Kir4.1 levels increased depressionlike behaviors whereas blocking its function reduced them.
    The studies do not reveal how burst firing influences depression but the researchers have a hypothesis. The LHb connects to parts of the limbic system—which processes emotion—as well as reward centers that signal using chemical messengers associated with pleasure and mood, like dopamine and serotonin. The LHb inhibits activity in these regions, so burst firing may more effectively put the brakes on systems that produce reward signals from pleasurable activities. “Our results provide a simple model of how ketamine leads to disinhibition of the reward center to quickly relieve depression,” Hu says.
    Among researchers not taking part in the work, not everyone agrees the story can be this simple, however. “We’ve found the habenula is underactive in depressed patients, which is inconsistent with these data,” says neuroscientist Jonathan Roiser of University College London. But if these discrepancies can be resolved, studying the LHb is a promising path toward entirely new approaches to treating severe depression. “It’s fascinating to see that ketamine dampens habenular hyperactivity,” says psychiatrist Matthew Klein of the University of California, San Diego. “Further research will show whether this is the rapid antidepressant mechanism in human patients.”
    The findings have several implications for treatment. Understanding how ketamine acts so quickly could provide greater insight into the core mechanisms of depression and help to develop next-generation ketamine-based treatments that do not have the same side effects as the drug itself, such as dissociation and bladder problems. Several pharmaceutical companies have been pursuing this goal, but knowing what it is about ketamine that produces the desirable effects could, in principle, aid these efforts.
    Researchers are still studying ketamine’s long-term effects, safety and optimum doses in clinical trials. Currently, patients are administered ketamine via infusions in a hospital, which, combined with the side effects, makes it unwieldy. “It would be great if we could reproduce ketamine’s rapid effects in a simple oral medication,” Klein says. “Its most exciting benefit is in treating suicidal ideation, which we currently don’t have any fast-acting therapies for; it’s an unmet clinical need that could save lives.”
    The recent work also identifies multiple new targets for therapies, including Kir4.1 and t-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (t-VSCCs), another target implicated in burst firing. The team is planning to test whether drugs that block t-VSCCs have antidepressant effects, Hu says.
    Simon Makin is a freelance science writer based in London.

    https://getpocket.com/explore/item/g...eve-depression

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    It’s crazy because it is a micro dose (they use in anesthesia and it is cheap) this is like $1400 a shot! Holy moly

    Max
    Well wishes to anyone with depression. Anything is worth trying . I just happened to see this .

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    Quote Originally Posted by maxmuscle1 View Post

    It’s crazy because it is a micro dose (they use in anesthesia and it is cheap) this is like $1400 a shot! Holy moly

    Max
    Well wishes to anyone with depression. Anything is worth trying . I just happened to see this .
    Yea the reason they use it for surgery in 3rd world countries is because it’s so cheap. They are using a 100th of the product and charging 100x more. Big pharmaceutical is genius

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    Damn it!!! I had a wine bottle full of ketamine once and I poured it out cause I had no idea wtf it was. All these years in therapy and all the thousands and thousands of dollars spent on meds. I could have been cured in 30 minutes. Lol

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    Ketamine… it’s fun till you fall into the black hole.
    “Tape on a dick you twat waffle” - IronRage & Dale C.

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    Ketamine and depression cure??

    Quote Originally Posted by AR-15 View Post
    Damn it!!! I had a wine bottle full of ketamine once and I poured it out cause I had no idea wtf it was. All these years in therapy and all the thousands and thousands of dollars spent on meds. I could have been cured in 30 minutes. Lol
    Or had a really fun time
    I use to eat about 5-10 beans and snort a couple lines of this stuff back when rolls were rolls and have a blast
    Last edited by dale.c; 09-01-2021 at 04:44 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Milford King View Post
    Ketamine… it’s fun till you fall into the black hole.
    And get STUCK

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    Quote Originally Posted by GenixCon2.0 View Post
    Yea the reason they use it for surgery in 3rd world countries is because it’s so cheap. They are using a 100th of the product and charging 100x more. Big pharmaceutical is genius
    True. They use it here too, add it in during procedures because it doesn’t lower your HR(actually can make it faster ). It can be great for some and others would get bad dysphoria . Just 25mg and they would be acting crazy post procedure. One guy said , “ Hey you were protecting me down in the Rabbit Hole!” You know, When we were in the Hobbit Movie!” I was trying hard to act normal and answer normally . It was like he was trippin balls! He seemed genuinely scared ! Others would be fine or liked it. Except a 15 year old female Cheerleader....omg! She started taking shit like a complete slut at a bar and saying sexual things , telling her mom to “Shut the F Up Whore HaT! “ and her father was the Deputy Mayor. The Mom was mortified! She said that she had never heard her sweet baby talk that way! EVER!! (I have a feeling she got put on lockdown when they got home!) she was talking about what she liked to do and partying /drugs ! I about put gauze into her mouth so she wouldn’t dig her hole any deeper.
    It literally had me cracking up when I got home. I was still a senior at the time (shadowing a pain management physician). So we were only a few years apart, I won’t repeat what she said as she could have been a sweet girl but, she basically {liked our present that we can give} And said it loud! I of course explained to her mom that that particular medication can completely change a personality and make them say very untrue things. But deep down, it was like a girl that drinks and takes some Benzo! Her drunk self cane out times 10! All over a dang epidural shot! She could have just taken local but the physician always wants to give them a cocktail! I put on my medical (NO KETAMINE) if I have to get a surgery . Scares me! I’d probably ruin my relationship!

    Max

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    Yeah man. I stopped partying a long time ago.

    id be dead (by murder) if I let myself go like that in front of my wife. Could you imagine! Yikes
    “Tape on a dick you twat waffle” - IronRage & Dale C.

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    Quote Originally Posted by maxmuscle1 View Post
    True. They use it here too, add it in during procedures because it doesn’t lower your HR(actually can make it faster ). It can be great for some and others would get bad dysphoria . Just 25mg and they would be acting crazy post procedure. One guy said , “ Hey you were protecting me down in the Rabbit Hole!” You know, When we were in the Hobbit Movie!” I was trying hard to act normal and answer normally . It was like he was trippin balls! He seemed genuinely scared ! Others would be fine or liked it. Except a 15 year old female Cheerleader....omg! She started taking shit like a complete slut at a bar and saying sexual things , telling her mom to “Shut the F Up Whore HaT! “ and her father was the Deputy Mayor. The Mom was mortified! She said that she had never heard her sweet baby talk that way! EVER!! (I have a feeling she got put on lockdown when they got home!) she was talking about what she liked to do and partying /drugs ! I about put gauze into her mouth so she wouldn’t dig her hole any deeper.
    It literally had me cracking up when I got home. I was still a senior at the time (shadowing a pain management physician). So we were only a few years apart, I won’t repeat what she said as she could have been a sweet girl but, she basically {liked our present that we can give} And said it loud! I of course explained to her mom that that particular medication can completely change a personality and make them say very untrue things. But deep down, it was like a girl that drinks and takes some Benzo! Her drunk self cane out times 10! All over a dang epidural shot! She could have just taken local but the physician always wants to give them a cocktail! I put on my medical (NO KETAMINE) if I have to get a surgery . Scares me! I’d probably ruin my relationship!

    Max
    Lmao

    It’s actually a very versatile drug. It has different properties at low dosage than at high dosage. I knew some people who would take it at festivals in college. I never shy’d away from psychedelics in college but dmt and special k seemed a little to serious for my nature.

    Unless I need a emergency surgery in Latin America I hope to never experience it.

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    Quote Originally Posted by GenixCon2.0 View Post
    Lmao

    It’s actually a very versatile drug. It has different properties at low dosage than at high dosage. I knew some people who would take it at festivals in college. I never shy’d away from psychedelics in college but dmt and special k seemed a little to serious for my nature.

    Unless I need a emergency surgery in Latin America I hope to never experience it.
    I saw some true video on TV , these Cubans down in Miami were doing surgeries in a storage unit and OMG! A guy paid for pectoral implants and They gave him a female rack! They played the video on tv of the surgery and it literally made me sooo sick. They were using a plastic kitchen spatula to set the implants and the guy woke up like 8x during surgery Balling in pain. It was hard to watch! Frigging reminded me of a true horror movie ! It was his fault but JHC! What was he thinking ! Show up at 24 hr (non air conditioned roll up storage unit for SURGERY!! Crazy ! Like the Fix o Flat filled booties !

    Max

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    Quote Originally Posted by maxmuscle1 View Post
    I saw some true video on TV , these Cubans down in Miami were doing surgeries in a storage unit and OMG! A guy paid for pectoral implants and They gave him a female rack! They played the video on tv of the surgery and it literally made me sooo sick. They were using a plastic kitchen spatula to set the implants and the guy woke up like 8x during surgery Balling in pain. It was hard to watch! Frigging reminded me of a true horror movie ! It was his fault but JHC! What was he thinking ! Show up at 24 hr (non air conditioned roll up storage unit for SURGERY!! Crazy ! Like the Fix o Flat filled booties !

    Max
    Bahahaha, I just read this to my girl next to me in bed and we are both cracking up. Do you think when he walked up to the storage unit he was starting to have second thoughts...

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    Quote Originally Posted by GenixCon2.0 View Post
    Bahahaha, I just read this to my girl next to me in bed and we are both cracking up. Do you think when he walked up to the storage unit he was starting to have second thoughts...
    He was one of their compadres so he definitely must have been trippin. It seriously looked like a Texas Chainsaw Massacre set up! Woke up w Titties! He still had em because he couldn’t afford to get them removed ! You know they used whatever demo implants the office they worked at had ! F me! I will only go to a proven (100’s - 1000’s of procedures) board certified surgeon. I did hear you can get cheap cosmetic surgery down there and in DM and Brazil. That is why I see a high amount of she-dudes in certain countries. Colombia and Thailand have some you could never even tell! Crazy ! My brother got tricked into going to a “Beauty Contest” and his buds were all asking gone who was his Favorite (on TDY) . After they told him they were all boys ! . He stuck to his picks! Lol. He said you literally could accidentally fall in love it you weren’t wise about that stuff. I am wondering when a board member is gonna try the penile fillers ! . They do em! I see more & more in “the movies!” Lol. Friggin just massive with no shape ! One mix I love is Vietnamese & White mixed! I dated a girl while back, she was friggin gorgeous and had a bubble butt from her Pawg Blonde Mama! Light blue/gray eyes. I am gonna get into trouble ! My girl is a perfect mix! This was in 8th grade.....yeah that’s it !

    Max

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    Where do you buy

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    Quote Originally Posted by Frankdoz View Post
    Where do you buy
    I know guy name Mikey you can find him under the Hawthorne street bridge. Ask for a bag of Kit Kat and tell three leg Rick sent you.

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